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Abdullah Cim, Greta J Sawyer, Xiaohong Zhang, Haibin Su, Louise Collins, Peter Jones, Michael Antoniou, Jean-Paul Reynes, Hans-Joachim Lipps, and John W Fabre

transducing hepatocytes towards a pancreas phenotype in vivo . Ferber et al . (2000) gave standard E1/E4-deleted adenoviral vectors encoding rat Pdx1 i.v. to mice and found insulin-producing endocrine cells in the liver. These cells produced multiple

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Antonia Giacco, Teresa Peluso, Federica Cioffi, Stefania Iervolino, Giovanna Mercurio, Luca Roberto, Carla Reale, Marco Colella, Mario De Felice, Maria Moreno, Concetta Ambrosino, and Elena Silvestri

Introduction In humans and rodents, alterations in thyroid function have been associated with the pathogenesis of liver diseases and insulin resistance (IR) ( Iwen et al. 2013 , Giacco et al. 2019 ), predisposing, in turn, to diabetes as

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Kasper Faarkrog Høyer, Christoffer Laustsen, Steffen Ringgaard, Haiyun Qi, Christian Østergaard Mariager, Thomas Svava Nielsen, Ulrik Kræmer Sundekilde, Jonas T Treebak, Niels Jessen, and Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen

Introduction The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis and ensures a sufficient supply of substrates irrespective of food intake. During fasting, it is the primary source of endogenous glucose

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Paula J Brunton, Katie M Sullivan, David Kerrigan, John A Russell, Jonathan R Seckl, and Amanda J Drake

expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in both liver and adipose tissue ( Nyirenda et al . 1998 , Cleasby et al . 2003 ) and with increased hepatic expression of genes known to be important in regulating gluconeogenesis, such as phosphoenolpyruvate

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Susan Kralisch, Anke Tönjes, Kerstin Krause, Judit Richter, Ulrike Lossner, Peter Kovacs, Thomas Ebert, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, and Mathias Fasshauer

Introduction Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a member of the FGF family including 22 members ( Beenken & Mohammadi 2009 ). FGF21 is mainly produced by the liver but also by other tissues including white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle

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Md Nurul Islam, Yuichiro Mita, Keisuke Maruyama, Ryota Tanida, Weidong Zhang, Hideyuki Sakoda, and Masamitsu Nakazato

al. 2001 , Zigman et al. 2006 ). Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), a 40 amino acid peptide, was originally isolated by comprehensive chromatographic characterization of human hemofiltrate ( Krause et al. 2003 ). Human LEAP2 is

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Flávia Maria Silva-Veiga, Carolline Santos Miranda, Fabiane Ferreira Martins, Julio Beltrame Daleprane, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, and Vanessa Souza-Mello

health. Fructose intake has increased in recent years due to ultra-processed food intake and causes lipotoxicity with ectopic lipid deposition ( Lambertz et al. 2017 ). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intrahepatic lipid

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Joëlle Dupont, Sophie Tesseraud, Michel Derouet, Anne Collin, Nicole Rideau, Sabine Crochet, Estelle Godet, Estelle Cailleau-Audouin, Sonia Métayer-Coustard, Michel J Duclos, Christian Gespach, Tom E Porter, Larry A Cogburn, and Jean Simon

). Tyrosine phosphorylation of IR β-subunit, IRS-1 and Shc, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity appeared responsive to insulin status in the liver under several experimental conditions (fasting/re-feeding, chronic corticosterone treatment

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Shui-lin Sun and Liang-ming Liu

distributed in animal organs and tissues. Many organs, including the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, as well as the lung, kidney, spleen, hypophysis, adrenal gland, stomach, pancreas, ovary and liver, are found to express UII ( Coulouarn et al

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Johan Svensson, Åsa Tivesten, Klara Sjögren, Olle Isaksson, Göran Bergström, Subburaman Mohan, Johan Mölne, Jörgen Isgaard, and Claes Ohlsson

& Schaefer 2004 ). The major part of serum IGF-I is liver derived ( Sjögren et al. 1999 , Yakar et al. 1999 ). In addition to being regulated by GH ( Bengtsson et al. 1993 ), serum IGF-I levels are also affected by factors, such as food intake