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A Albalat, C Liarte, S MacKenzie, L Tort, J V Planas, and I Navarro

& Goetz 2001 , Laing et al. 2001 ). Interestingly, TNFα mRNA expression has been reported in primary trout monocytes ( Zou et al. 2002 , MacKenzie et al. 2003 ) and in in vitro differentiated macrophages after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide

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Rita E Roberts, Jacqueline Cavalcante-Silva, Rhonda D Kineman, and Timothy J Koh

primary source of wound IGF-1 ( Wagner et al. 2003 ). However, IGF-1 is also expressed by keratinocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages in skin wounds ( Gartner et al. 1992 , Brown et al. 1997 , Todorovic et al. 2008 ). Thus, the relative

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Rene F Chun, John S Adams, and Martin Hewison

involved in mediating innate immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Liu et al . 2006 ). The DNA array analysis of macrophages activated with an M tuberculosis lipoprotein highlighted the induction of mRNA for both the vitamin D receptor (VDR

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Eun-Kyung Choi, Woon-Ki Kim, Ok-Joo Sul, Yun-Kyung Park, Eun-Sook Kim, Jae-Hee Suh, Rina Yu, and Hye-Seon Choi

observed in OVX. Increased fat leads to the accumulation of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM), which plays a critical role in chronic inflammation and development of insulin resistance (IR) ( Shoelson et al . 2007 ). Exacerbation of insulin sensitivity is

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Corinne A Schuyler, Nga N Ta, Yanchun Li, Maria F Lopes-Virella, and Yan Huang

that are prone to rupture consist of a larger intimal lesion and an increased number of macrophages. Analysis of gene expression in atherosclerotic plaques showed that when compared with stable plaques, vulnerable plaques have higher expression of

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Susanne Granholm, Pernilla Lundberg, and Ulf H Lerner

haematopoietic origin and are most closely related to the monocyte/macrophage precursor cells ( Takahashi et al . 2002 ). Activation of the c-Fms receptor on these cells by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), released by stromal cells, or osteoblasts

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Li Juan He, Min Liang, Fan Fan Hou, Zhi Jian Guo, Di Xie, and Xun Zhang

the development of diabetic nephropathy ( Schrijvers et al . 2004 ). Increasing evidence shows that aberrant inflammatory responses, such as macrophage infiltration and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, are present in the diabetic kidney

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Yingxin Xian, Zonglan Chen, Hongrong Deng, Mengyin Cai, Hua Liang, Wen Xu, Jianping Weng, and Fen Xu

tissue from humans with obesity and obese mice models is infiltrated with increased numbers of macrophages provides a major mechanistic advance into understanding obesity-associated inflammation ( Olefsky & Glass 2010 ). These adipose tissue macrophages

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Eriko Inoue, Toshihiro Ichiki, Kotaro Takeda, Hirohide Matsuura, Toru Hashimoto, Jiro Ikeda, Aya Kamiharaguchi, and Kenji Sunagawa

( Shoelson et al . 2006 ). These cytokines, so-called adipokines, cause inflammation and recruitment of macrophages to adipose tissue ( Xu et al . 2003 ), which is another important mechanism for obesity-induced insulin resistance. The infiltrated

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Junlan Zhou, Min Cheng, Chan Boriboun, Mariam M Ardehali, Changfei Jiang, Qinghua Liu, Shuling Han, David A Goukassian, Yao-Liang Tang, Ting C Zhao, Ming Zhao, Lu Cai, Stéphane Richard, Raj Kishore, and Gangjian Qin

various immune cells ( Osborn & Olefsky 2012 ). More recently, studies have shown that adipose tissue macrophages derived from lean mice express markers of M2, or ‘alternative activated’, macrophages. In contrast, obese states are concomitant with M1, or