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Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongyin Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, and Xiaoqiu Xiao

Introduction In the past decades, the global prevalence of obesity and other metabolic diseases (MS) has dramatically increased in both children and adults ( Friend et al . 2013 , Jaacks et al . 2016 ). The disproportionately early-onset of

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Iwona J Bujalska, Omar M Durrani, Joseph Abbott, Claire U Onyimba, Pamela Khosla, Areeb H Moosavi, Tristan T Q Reuser, Paul M Stewart, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Elizabeth A Walker, and Saaeha Rauz

the orbit including local conditions, such as orbital cellulitis, orbital myositis, idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease, as well as systemic metabolic disorders (thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy) and generalised vasculitides (Wegener

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Mark A Exley, Laura Hand, Donal O'Shea, and Lydia Lynch

now a major public health issue, with the principal cause of morbidity due to metabolic dysfunction (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disease). Progression of clinical pathology has been strongly

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Anna Cinkajzlová, Miloš Mráz, and Martin Haluzík

2010 ). Excessive accumulation of VAT phenotypically presented as android obesity is associated with higher metabolic risk and the development of insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases

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Wanpitak Pongkan, Hiranya Pintana, Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, and Nipon Chattipakorn

testosterone deficiency increases substantially with age ( Araujo et al. 2007 ) and is associated with the development of several disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease ( Grossmann et al

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Guillermo García-Eguren, Oriol Giró, María del Mar Romero, Mar Grasa, and Felicia A Hanzu

and liver lipid content changes were reversible in HFD- and CORT-treated animals, whereas muscle lipid content remained increased in the CORT group To further analyze the metabolic tissues involved in CS disease, we measured the quadriceps mass and

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Vicki Chen, Gia V Shelp, Jacob L Schwartz, Niklas D J Aardema, Madison L Bunnell, and Clara E Cho

with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease ( Martin-Gronert & Ozanne 2006 , Taylor & Poston 2007 ), with extensive past research that has emphasized metabolic consequences of gestational caloric or macronutrient intakes

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Lenka Maletínská, Andrea Popelová, Blanka Železná, Michal Bencze, and Jaroslav Kuneš

.2015.3 ) 10.1038/emm.2015.3 King A Brain A Hanson K Dittmann J Vickers J Fernandez-Martos C 2018 Disruption of leptin signalling in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease . Metabolic Brain Disease 33 1097 – 1110 . (

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Clara Lefranc, Malou Friederich-Persson, Roberto Palacios-Ramirez, and Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat

the number (hyperplasia) and/or size (hypertrophy) of the adipocytes. Such remodeling determines the CV and metabolic outcomes of the disease ( Spiegelman & Flier 1996 ). Progenitor cells (pre-adipocytes) are eight-fold more abundant in scWAT than vWAT

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Taija Saloniemi, Heli Jokela, Leena Strauss, Pirjo Pakarinen, and Matti Poutanen

treatment option for developing novel therapies against hormonal diseases ( Labrie 2007 ). Among the steroid metabolic enzymes, hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenases (HSD17Bs) compose a family of enzymes that catalyse the conversion between the low-active 17