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Regina Nostramo, Andrej Tillinger, Juan M Saavedra, Ashok Kumar, Varunkumar Pandey, Lidia Serova, Richard Kvetnansky, and Esther L Sabban

Introduction The response of an organism to acute stress is necessary for survival. However, when stress is prolonged or repeated, the response is not only adaptive but also becomes maladaptive. With repeated exposure to stress, there is an increase

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B M McGowan, J S Minnion, K G Murphy, D Roy, S A Stanley, W S Dhillo, J V Gardiner, M A Ghatei, and S R Bloom

periventricular gray ( Burazin et al . 2002 , Tanaka et al . 2005 ). Anatomical studies suggest that this nucleus is involved in a midbrain behaviour control network that regulates locomotion, attention and learning processes, and that responds to stress

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Juan Castillo, Barbara Castellana, Laura Acerete, Josep V Planas, Frederick W Goetz, Simon Mackenzie, and Lluis Tort

Introduction In teleost fish, the endocrine response to stress is composed of the adrenergic response and the hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal (HPI) response ( Wendelaar Bonga 1997 ). The HPI response leads to an increase in glucocorticoid

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Jia-Jiun Yan, Yi-Chun Lee, Yi-Ling Tsou, Yung-Che Tseng, and Pung-Pung Hwang

. 2014 ). Timely adjustment of osmoregulation upon acute salinity stress is required for survival of euryhaline teleosts, and efficient iono-/osomoregulation upon chronic salinity stress also affects energy consumption, which is a major determinant of

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Andrea Anedda, Eduardo Rial, and M Mar González-Barroso

upregulated in a number of physiological situations where there is oxidative stress. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is probably the most important source of superoxide and its rate of formation depends on respiratory activity. UCP2 could contribute to the

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Meng Guo, Yuna Li, Yan Wang, Zhenkun Li, Xiaohong Li, Peikun Zhao, Changlong Li, Jianyi Lv, Xin Liu, Xiaoyan Du, and Zhenwen Chen

. 2007 , Piazzi et al. 2010 a , Lee et al. 2013 ). Recently, eEF1A1 was also reported to participate in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death in Chinese hamster ovary, H9c2 and HepG2 cells ( Borradaile et al. 2006 , Stoianov et

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Helge Müller, Juliane Kröger, Olaf Jöhren, Silke Szymczak, Michael Bader, Peter Dominiak, and Walter Raasch

al . 1994 , Llorens-Cortes et al . 1994 , Jöhren et al . 1995 , Jöhren & Saavedra 1996 ), that they are regulated during stress ( Castren & Saavedra 1988 , Aguilera et al . 1995 , Leong et al . 2002 ), and that Ang II influences HPA axis

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A. Grossman

Department of Endocrinology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London ec1a 7be received 16 February 1988 While stress and opiate alkaloids such as morphine have both been with us for millenia, the relationship between the two has remained obstinately enigmatic. The discovery of the endogenous opioid peptides some 13 years ago suggested that we might at last have found the key, but the partners to the relationship, while clearly well disposed to each other, persist in avoiding legal wedlock. Can we not find grounds at least for a prolonged engagement between stress and the opioids in current neuroendocrinology?


Circulating opioid peptides


Measurement of circulating opioid peptides has certainly not been encouraging, following the initial euphoria in discovering that certain opioids were indeed present in the peripheral circulation. In man, β-lipotrophin (β-LPH) is co-released with adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) after cleavage from pro-opiomelanocortin in the corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary,

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Isabel C Greenman, Edith Gomez, Claire E J Moore, and Terence P Herbert

revealed that the largest increases in the abundance of polysomal mRNAs encoded proteins associated with oxidative stress, indicating that the expression of these proteins is up-regulated in response to high glucose concentration (Table 2 ). These included

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Bo Qian, Haiyan Wang, Xiuli Men, Wenjian Zhang, Hanqing Cai, Shiqing Xu, Yaping Xu, Liya Ye, Claes B Wollheim, and Jinning Lou

Introduction Progressive β-cell failure is the precipitating factor for the transition from the insulin-resistant state to overt type 2 diabetes ( Muoio & Newgard 2008 ). Hyperglycemia and oestrogen receptor (ER) stress have been suggested as