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Jonathan J Nicholls, Mary Jane Brassill, Graham R Williams, and J H Duncan Bassett

). Medial neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the hypothalamus synthesise and secrete thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which in turn stimulates the synthesis and secretion of TSH from anterior pituitary thyrotrophs. TSH, acting on the TSH

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B Anguiano, R Rojas-Huidobro, G Delgado, and C Aceves

of transcription 5 (Stat5), which is a key component of the PRL signaling pathway ( Favre-Young et al. 2000 ). In the case of the SNS, THs are known to regulate sympathetic action by modulating the expression of β-adrenergic receptors ( Mayollan

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J Fahrenkrug, B Georg, J Hannibal, and H L Jørgensen

established ( Rookh et al . 1979 , Jordan et al . 1980 , Ottenweller & Hedge 1982 , Wong et al . 1983 , Kalsbeek et al . 2000 , Guo et al . 2015 ). Nerve fibres originating in the SCN innervating thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons in the

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Giulia Baldini and Kevin D Phelan

insulin receptors on the surface of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons to promote processing of POMC to the mature hormone α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which signals to decrease energy intake ( Cone 2006 , Ghamari-Langroudi et al. 2011

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Chirine Toufaily, Gauthier Schang, Xiang Zhou, Philipp Wartenberg, Ulrich Boehm, John P Lydon, Ferdinand Roelfsema, and Daniel J Bernard

Introduction The progesterone receptor (PR, product of the Pgr gene) plays fundamental and pleiotropic roles in the control of reproduction. This is perhaps most clearly demonstrated in female Pgr -knockout mice, which are infertile because

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A J Forhead and A L Fowden

.33–0.35G) 50–55 (0.34–0.38G) 17 (0.81G)  Follicular >14 (>0.35G) >55 (>0.38G) 18 days–3 weeks postnatally TRH in hypothalamus 10–12 (0.25–0.30G) <60 (0.40G) 16 (0.76G) TSH in anterior pituitary gland and circulation 10–12 <60 17 (0.81G) TSH receptor in

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David R Grattan

the portal blood accounted for changes in prolactin secretion in various physiological conditions ( Ben-Jonathan et al . 1977 , 1980 , Gibbs & Neill 1978 , De Greef & Neill 1979 ). Dopamine receptors were identified on lactotroph cells in the

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Eliane Correa-de-Santana, Bianca Fröhlich, Marta Labeur, Marcelo Páez-Pereda, Marily Theodoropoulou, Jose Luis Monteserin, Ulrich Renner, and Günter K Stalla

multiple bacterial cell wall components through a series of pattern recognition molecules expressed on the cell surface such as toll-like receptors (TLRs; Takeda et al . 2003 ). In response to cytokines released by activated immune cells, FS cells produce

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Melody L Allensworth-James, Angela Odle, Anessa Haney, Melanie MacNicol, Angus MacNicol, and Gwen Childs

increased numbers of somatotropes just before birth. In addition, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) also stimulates GH in neonates ( Fink et al. 2012 ). Thus, as inhibitors of GH and their receptors are expressed differentially throughout development, GH

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Riccardo Dore, Luka Levata, Hendrik Lehnert, and Carla Schulz

Introduction In quest of novel appetite regulating molecules, in 2006, Oh-I and coworkers re-discovered NEFA/nucleobindin2 ( Nucb2 ), a peroxisome proliferator γ receptor (PPARG)-activated gene in immortalized cell lines ( Oh-I et al. 2006