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Véronique Serre-Beinier, Christian Toso, Philippe Morel, Carmen Gonelle-Gispert, Christelle Veyrat-Durebex, Françoise Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Thierry Calandra, Thierry Roger, Richard W James, Xavier Montet, Léo Bühler, Domenico Bosco, and Thierry Berney

pancreatic islets in a glucose-dependent fashion ( Waeber et al . 1997 , Johansson et al . 2003 , Allaman-Pillet et al . 2004 ), and potentiates the glucose-induced release of insulin from β-cells in an autocrine loop ( Waeber et al . 1997 ). In

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Lewin Small, Henry Gong, Christian Yassmin, Gregory J Cooney, and Amanda E Brandon

and 32°C. Interestingly, although the relationship between energy expenditure and intake is very clear ( Cannon & Nedergaard 2011 ), there have been a wide range of reported effects of housing temperature on fat mass and glucose metabolism. These

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P Delva, M Degan, M Trettene, and A Lechi

with insulin resistance syndrome ( Delva et al. 1996 , 1998 a ) and that peripheral insulin resistance is related to Mg i 2+ levels ( Delva et al. 1998 b ). Furthermore, we have shown in vitro that high extracellular glucose at concentrations

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L Lundholm, G Bryzgalova, H Gao, N Portwood, S Fält, K D Berndt, A Dicker, D Galuska, J R Zierath, J-Å Gustafsson, S Efendic, K Dahlman-Wright, and A Khan

risk of developing type 2 diabetes ( Louet et al . 2004 ), while treatment with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) or conjugated equine estrogens improves insulin sensitivity and lowers blood glucose levels ( Espeland et al . 1998 , Crespo et al . 2002 , Saglam

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H Nishimoto, R Matsutani, S Yamamoto, T Takahashi, K-G Hayashi, A Miyamoto, S Hamano, and M Tetsuka

luteum (CL). To sustain its activity, a substantial energy source is necessary. In the bovine ovary, the predominant energy substrate appears to be glucose, and the whole ovarian respiratory exchange ratio was calculated to be 0.95 ( Rabiee et al. 1997

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Kanta Kon, Hiroshi Tsuneki, Hisakatsu Ito, Yoshinori Takemura, Kiyofumi Sato, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Assaf Rudich, Takahiro Maeda, Tsutomu Wada, and Toshiyasu Sasaoka

and behavioral circadian misalignments in modern lifestyle, such as shift work and late eating, lead to dysregulation of glucose metabolism and increased risk of type 2 diabetes ( Cedernaes et al. 2015 , Qian et al. 2016 ). Intriguingly, one night

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Ivan Quesada, Eva Tudurí, Cristina Ripoll, and Ángel Nadal

Introduction The principal level of control on glycaemia by the islet of Langerhans depends largely on the coordinated secretion of glucagon and insulin by α- and β-cells respectively. Both cell types respond oppositely to changes in blood glucose

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L Zhao, Z Li, M Kullin, L A H Borg, and F A Karlsson

-Järvinen 1992 ). High glucose concentrations in vitro also sensitize the B-cells to direct damage by diabetogenic agents such as streptozotocin ( Eizirik et al. 1988 ) and cytokines such as interleukin-1 ( Palmer et al. 1989 ). B-cell secretory rest

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Jennifer E Bruin, Lisa D Kellenberger, Hertzel C Gerstein, Katherine M Morrison, and Alison C Holloway

women who smoke or use nicotine replacement therapy, results in low birth weight, and postnatal impaired glucose homeostasis, hyperinsulinemia, increased body weight and dyslipidemia ( Williams & Kanagasabai 1984 , Newman et al. 1999 , Pausova et al

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Anthony Raffo, Kolbe Hancock, Teresa Polito, Yuli Xie, Gordon Andan, Piotr Witkowski, Mark Hardy, Pasquale Barba, Caterina Ferrara, Antonella Maffei, Matthew Freeby, Robin Goland, Rudolph L Leibel, Ian R Sweet, and Paul E Harris

Introduction d -Glucose, with the synergistic effects of certain amino acids, is the major physiological stimulus for insulin secretion (reviewed in Henquin (2000 )). The net insulin production and glucose homeostasis, however, are regulated by a