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Astrid C Hauge-Evans, James Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Zoheb Hassan, and Peter M Jones

available kits (Insulin: Millipore Ltd, Watford, UK; glucagon: Mercodia, Uppsala, Sweden; SST and GLP1: USCN Life Science, Inc., Wuhan, China; catecholamine: Bioassay Technology Laboratory, Shanghai, China). Islet hormone concentrations in the incubation

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MD Robertson, G Livesey, LM Morgan, SM Hampton, and JC Mathers

Glucagon-like peptide (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone of the enteroinsular axis released rapidly after meals despite the fact that GLP-1 secreting cells (L-cells) occur predominantly in the distal gut. The importance of these colonic L-cells for postprandial GLP-1 was determined in healthy control subjects and in ileostomy patients with minimal small bowel resection (<5 cm). Subjects were fed a high complex carbohydrate test meal (15.3 g starch) followed by two carbohydrate-free, high fat test meals (25 g and 48.7 g fat respectively). Circulating levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) and GLP-1 were measured over a 9-h postprandial period. For both subject groups the complex carbohydrate test meal failed to elicit a rise in either GIP or GLP-1. However, both hormones were elevated after the fat load although the GLP-1 concentration was significantly reduced in the ileostomist group when compared with controls (P=0.02). Associated with this reduction in circulating GLP-1 was an elevation in glucagon concentration (P=0.012) and a secondary rise in the plasma glucose concentration (P=0.006). These results suggest that the loss of colonic endocrine tissue is an important determinant in the postprandial GLP-1 concentration. Ileostomists should not be assumed to have normal enteroinsular function as the colon appears to have an important role in postprandial metabolism.

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P Plaisancié, V Dumoulin, J-A Chayvialle, and J-C Cuber

Abstract

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released from endocrine cells of the distal part of the gut after ingestion of a meal. GLP-1 secretion is, in part, under the control of hormonal and/or neural mechanisms. However, stimulation of the colonic L cells may also occur directly by the luminal contents. This was examined in the present study, using an isolated vascularly perfused rat colon. GLP-1 immunoreactivity was measured in the portal effluent after luminal infusion of a variety of compounds which are found in colonic contents (nutrients, fibers, bile acids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)). Oleic acid (100 mm) or a mixture of amino acids (total concentration 250 mm), or starch (0·5%, w/v) did not increase GLP-1 secretion over basal value. A pharmacological concentration of glucose (250 mm) elicited a marked release of GLP-1 which was maximal at the end of infusion (400% of basal), while 5 mm glucose was without effect on secretion. Pectin evoked a dose-dependent release of GLP-1 over the range 0·1–0·5% (w/v) with a maximal response at 360% of basal when 0·5% pectin was infused. Cellulose or gum arabic (0·5%) did not modify GLP-1 secretion. The SCFAs acetate, propionate or butyrate (5, 20 and 100 mm) did not induce a significant release of GLP-1. Among the four bile acids tested, namely taurocholate, cholate, deoxycholate and hyodeoxycholate, the last one was the most potent at eliciting a GLP-1 response with a maximal release at 300% and 400% of the basal value when 2 and 20 mm bile acid were administered respectively. In conclusion, some fibres and bile acids are capable of releasing colonic GLP-1 in rats and may contribute to the secretory activity of colonic L cells.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 145, 521–526

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A Acitores, N Gonzalez, V Sancho, I Valverde, and ML Villanueva-Penacarrillo

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin with glucose-dependent insulinotropic and insulin-independent antidiabetic properties, has insulin-like effects on glucose metabolism in extrapancreatic tissues participating in overall glucose homeostasis. These effects are exerted through specific receptors not associated with cAMP, an inositol phosphoglycan being a possible second messenger. In rat hepatocytes, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1) has been shown to be involved in the GLP-1-induced stimulation of glycogen synthase. We have investigated the role of enzymes known or suggested to mediate the actions of insulin in the GLP-1-induced increase in glycogen synthase a activity in rat skeletal muscle strips. We first explored the effect of GLP-1, compared with that of insulin, on the activation of PI3K, PKB, p70s6 kinase (p70s6k) and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the action of specific inhibitors of these kinases on the insulin- and GLP-1-induced increment in glycogen synthase a activity. The study showed that GLP-1, like insulin, activated PI3K/PKB, p70s6k and p44/42. Wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor) reduced the stimulatory action of insulin on glycogen synthase a activity and blocked that of GLP-1, rapamycin (a 70s6k inhibitor) did not affect the action of GLP-1 but abolished that of insulin, PD98059 (MAPK inhibitor) was ineffective on insulin but blocked the action of GLP-1, okadaic acid (a PP-2A inhibitor) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (a PP-1 inhibitor) were both ineffective on GLP-1 but abolished the action of insulin, and Ro 31-8220 (an inhibitor of some PKC isoforms) reduced the effect of GLP-1 while completely preventing that of insulin. It was concluded that activation of PI3K/PKB and MAPKs is required for the GLP-1-induced increment in glycogen synthase a activity, while PKC, although apparently participating, does not seem to play an essential role; unlike in insulin signaling, p70s6k, PP-1 and PP-2A do not seem to be needed in the action of GLP-1 upon glycogen synthase a activity in rat muscle.

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Barbara C Fam, Rebecca Sgambellone, Zheng Ruan, Joseph Proietto, and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

-like peptide 1 ( Glp1 ) mRNA in gut ileum. Glp1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in DIO mice as compared to both DR and chow-fed mice ( Fig. 6 A), whereas DR mice had the same expression level as chow-fed mice. When GPR gene levels were assessed, DIO

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N Dachicourt, P Serradas, D Bailbe, M Kergoat, L Doare, and B Portha

The effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)-amide (GLP-1) on cAMP content and insulin release were studied in islets isolated from diabetic rats (n0-STZ model) which exhibited impaired glucose-induced insulin release. We first examined the possibility of re-activating the insulin response to glucose in the beta-cells of the diabetic rats using GLP-1 in vitro. In static incubation experiments, GLP-1 amplified cAMP accumulation (by 170%) and glucose-induced insulin release (by 140%) in the diabetic islets to the same extent as in control islets. Using a perifusion procedure, GLP-1 amplified the insulin response to 16.7 mM glucose by diabetic islets and generated a clear biphasic pattern of insulin release. The incremental insulin response to glucose in the presence of GLP-1, although lower than corresponding control values (1.56 +/- 0.37 and 4.53 +/- 0.60 pg/min per ng islet DNA in diabetic and control islets respectively), became similar to that of control islets exposed to 16.7 mM glucose alone (1.09 +/- 0.15 pg/min per ng islet DNA). Since in vitro GLP-1 was found to exert positive effects on the glucose competence of the residual beta-cells in the n0-STZ model. we investigated the therapeutic effect of in vivo GLP-1 administration on glucose tolerance and glucose-induced insulin release by n0-STZ rats. An infusion of GLP-1 (10 ng/min per kg; i.v.) in n0-STZ rats enhanced significantly (P < 0.01) basal plasma insulin levels, and, when combined with an i.v. glucose tolerance and insulin secretion test, it was found to improve (P < 0.05) glucose tolerance and the insulinogenic index, as compared with the respective values of these parameters before GLP-1 treatment.

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A. Faulkner and H. T. Pollock

ABSTRACT

The effects of i.v. glucagon-like peptide-1-(7–36)amide (GLP-1; 10 μg) on starved sheep given an i.v. glucose load (5 g) were studied. Plasma insulin concentrations rose significantly more after glucose administration in fed than in starved sheep. Giving GLP-1 to starved sheep increased the insulin response to the glucose load. The rise in plasma insulin concentrations in starved sheep given GLP-1 was similar to that observed in fed sheep. Plasma glucose concentrations returned to normal values more quickly in the starved sheep given GLP-1 than in starved sheep not given gut hormone. Plasma concentrations of free fatty acid, urea and α-amino nitrogen decreased more quickly following glucose administration in starved sheep given GLP-1 than in those not given GLP-1. The data suggest a role for GLP-1 in regulating plasma insulin concentrations and hence metabolism in ruminant animals. The possible role of gut hormones in ruminants is discussed.

Journal of Endocrinology (1991) 129, 55–58

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J. Oben, L. Morgan, J. Fletcher, and V. Marks

ABSTRACT

The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide, (GLP-1(7–36) amide), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), glucagon and insulin on fatty acid synthesis in explants of rat adipose tissue from various sites was investigated. GIP, GLP-1(7–36) amide and insulin stimulated fatty acid synthesis, as determined by measuring the incorporation of [14C]acetate into saponifiable fat, in a dose-dependent manner, over the concentration range 5–15 ng/ml (0·87–2·61 nmol/l) for insulin and 0·5–7·5 ng/ml for GIP (0·10–1·50 nmol/l) and GLP-1(7–36) amide (0·15–2·27 nmol/l). Insulin and GIP caused a significantly greater stimulation of [14C]acetate incorporation into fatty acids in omental adipose tissue than in either epididymal or subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both GIP and GLP-1(7–36) amide had the ability to stimulate fatty acid synthesis within the physiological range of the circulating hormones. At lower concentrations of the hormones, GLP-1(7–36) amide was a more potent stimulator of fatty acid synthesis than GIP in omental adipose tissue culture; the basal rate of fatty acid synthesis was 0·41±0·03 pmol acetate incorporated/mg wet weight tissue per 2 h; at 0·10 nmol hormone/l 1·15±0·10 and 3·40±0·12 pmol acetate incorporated/mg wet weight tissue per 2 h for GIP and GLP-1(7–36) amide respectively (P < 0·01). GLP-2 and glucagon were without effect on fatty acid synthesis in omental adipose tissue. The study indicates that GIP and GLP-1(7–36) amide, in addition to stimulating insulin secretion, may play a direct physiological role in vivo, in common with insulin, in promoting fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue.

Journal of Endocrinology (1991) 130, 267–272

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S Saifia, AM Chevrier, A Bosshard, JC Cuber, JA Chayvialle, and J Abello

The neuropeptide galanin is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and exerts several inhibitory effects, especially on intestinal motility and on insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells. The presence of galanin fibres not only in the myenteric and submucosal plexus but also in the mucosa, prompted us to investigate the regulatory role of galanin, and its mechanism of action, on the secretion of the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Rat ileal cells were dispersed through mechanical vibration followed by moderate exposure to hyaluronidase, DNase I and EDTA, and enriched for L-cells by counterflow elutriation. A 6- to 7-fold enrichment in GLP-1 cell content was registered after elutriation, as compared with the crude cell preparation (929 +/- 81 vs 138 +/- 14 fmol/10(6) cells). L-cells then accounted for 4-5% of the total cell population. Bombesin induced a time-(15-240 min) and dose- (0.1 nM-1 microM) dependent release of GLP-1. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, 100 nM), forskolin (10 microM) and the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 1 microM) each stimulated GLP-1 secretion over a 1-h incubation period. Galanin (0.01-100 nM) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of bombesin- and of GIP-stimulated GLP-1 release (mean inhibition of 90% with 100 nM galanin). Galanin also dose-dependently inhibited forskolin-induced GLP-1 secretion (74% of inhibition with 100 nM galanin), but not TPA-stimulated hormone release. Pretreatment of cells with 200 ng/ml pertussis toxin for 3 h, or incubation with the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker disopyramide (200 microM), prevented the inhibition by galanin of bombesin- and GIP-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. These studies indicate that intestinal secretion of GLP-1 is negatively controlled by galanin, that acts through receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and involves ATP-dependent K+ channels.

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CF Deacon, S Wamberg, P Bie, TE Hughes, and JJ Holst

The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), thereby losing insulinotropic activity. DPP IV inhibition reduces exogenous GLP-1 degradation, but the extent of endogenous incretin protection has not been fully assessed, largely because suitable assays which distinguish between intact and degraded peptides have been unavailable. Using newly developed assays for intact GLP-1 and GIP, the effect of DPP IV inhibition on incretin hormone metabolism was examined. Conscious dogs were given NVP-DPP728, a specific DPP IV inhibitor, at a dose that inhibited over 90% of plasma DPP IV for the first 90 min following treatment. Total and intact incretin concentrations increased (P<0.0001) following a mixed meal, but on control days (vehicle infusion), intact peptide concentrations were lower (P<0.01) than total peptide concentrations (22.6 +/- 1.2% intact GIP; 10.1 +/- 0.4% intact GLP-1). Following inhibitor treatment, the proportion of intact peptide increased (92.5 +/- 4.3% intact GIP, P<0.0001; 99.0 +/- 22.6% intact GLP-1, P<0.02). Active (intact) incretins increased after NVP-DPP728 (from 4797 +/- 364 to 10 649 +/- 106 pM x min for GIP, P<0.03; from 646 +/- 134 to 2822 +/- 528 pM x m in for GLP-1, P<0.05). In contrast, total incretins fell (from 21 632 +/- 654 to 12 084 +/- 1723 pM x min for GIP, P<0.002; from 5145 +/- 677 to 3060 +/- 601 pM x min for GLP-1, P<0.05). Plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations were unaltered by the inhibitor. We have concluded that DPP IV inhibition with NVP-DPP728 prevents N-terminal degradation of endogenous incretins in vivo, resulting in increased plasma concentrations of intact, biologically active GIP and GLP-1. Total incretin secretion was reduced by DPP IV inhibition, suggesting the possibility of a feedback mechanism.