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Yi Lin and Zhongjie Sun

Introduction It is estimated that diabetes affects about 150 million people worldwide, and this figure is expected to be doubled in the next 20 years ( Zimmet et al . 2001 ). About 90–95% of all North American cases of diabetes are type 2 diabetes

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Paige V Bauer and Frank A Duca

Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes has more than doubled since 1980, with over 382 million affected individuals worldwide, in conjunction with an increase in obesity rates and the spread of a western lifestyle ( Scully 2012 ). Given

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Hindrik Mulder

The fact that type 2 diabetes has become pandemic is difficult to escape. Increased morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular events, which frequently accompany the disease, are the most severe consequences of the diabetes pandemic. This problem is

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Olivier Dumortier, Gaia Fabris, Didier F Pisani, Virginie Casamento, Nadine Gautier, Charlotte Hinault, Patricia Lebrun, Christophe Duranton, Michel Tauc, Stéphane Dalle, Julie Kerr-Conte, François Pattou, Marc Prentki, and Emmanuel Van Obberghen

making optimal glucose sensing possible. It is thought that beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes could result from a reduced expression of key genes, triggering the loss of beta cell identity and hence promoting dedifferentiation ( Weir et al . 2001

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Andrew T Templin, Christine Schmidt, Meghan F Hogan, Nathalie Esser, Richard N Kitsis, Rebecca L Hull, Sakeneh Zraika, and Steven E Kahn

of type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( Hull et al. 2004 , Özcan et al. 2004 , Jurgens et al. 2011 , Back & Kaufman 2012 ). Despite its potential to prevent β-cell loss, few studies have examined ARC’s role in maintaining whole-body glucose homeostasis

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Jin-Bong Lee, Sung-Jin Yoon, Sang-Hyun Lee, Moo-Seung Lee, Haiyoung Jung, Tae-Don Kim, Suk Ran Yoon, Inpyo Choi, Ik-Soo Kim, Su Wol Chung, Hee Gu Lee, Jeong-Ki Min, and Young-Jun Park

-α (TNF-α), which also influence insulin sensitivity ( Hofmann et al . 1994 ). Recently, many reports have examined how the phosphorylation of PPARγ is a crucial factor in modulating adipose tissue function, specifically as it relates to diabetes and

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Michael E Symonds, Peter Aldiss, Neele Dellschaft, James Law, Hernan P Fainberg, Mark Pope, Harold Sacks, and Helen Budge

types of fat depots: namely brown, white and beige adipose tissue ( Cypess et al . 2014 ). The latter has the largest potential as a therapeutic target in the prevention of obesity and/or diabetes. This is because, from an adult perspective, beige (or

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Tessa J Roseboom

babies who were small at birth were at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Hales had found that nutritional interventions during early development affected pancreatic development and glucose tolerance. They hypothesised that poor nutrition in

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Jon G Mabley, Pal Pacher, Kanneganti G K Murthy, William Williams, Garry J Southan, Andrew L Salzman, and Csaba Szabo

Introduction Type I diabetes is a disease characterized by the specific destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans by the immune system ( Bach 1994 ). Immune cells, particularly macrophages and T-cells, invade

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Li Ding, Yue Yin, Lingling Han, Yin Li, Jing Zhao, and Weizhen Zhang

Brand Glucometer (Roche) with blood collected from the tail vein. Glucose clamp studies Two-hour hyperglycemic clamps were performed in either WT or TN mice fasted for 4 h following the instruction of National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive