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Tsun-Jui Liu, Hui-Chin Lai, Chih-Tai Ting, and Ping H Wang

signaling in cardiomyocytes will help elucidate how hormonal signaling modulates myocardial function. Insulin and IGF-I could prevent skeletal muscle cell atrophy and promote myogenesis through forkhead transcription factors (FOXO; Hribal et al

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Michael Hastings, John S O’Neill, and Elizabeth S Maywood

which dominates circadian day: as noted above, the Clock delta19 mutation, which compromises transcriptional activation, lengthens circadian period in mice to ca. 28 h. Protein stability is another key factor ( Gallego & Virshup 2007 ). In the tau

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Weiliang Xia, Dolores D Mruk, Will M Lee, and C Yan Cheng

immunohistochemistry (IHC) Genes with more than twofold change in their expression levels were tabulated and grouped by their general functions (Tables 3 –5 ). Among these are cytokines, transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, genes that regulate ion

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O Schakman, H Gilson, and J P Thissen

transcription factor mandatory for differentia tion of satellite cells into muscle fibers ( te Pas et al . 2000 ). Catabolic action of glucocorticoids The stimulatory effect of glucocorticoids on muscle proteolysis results from the activation of the major

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B Shan, C Schaaf, A Schmidt, K Lucia, M Buchfelder, M Losa, D Kuhlen, J Kreutzer, M J Perone, E Arzt, G K Stalla, and U Renner

), the regulated subunit of the transcription factor HIF1 ( Harris 2002 , Hickey & Simon 2006 ). The latter is composed of two subunits, the constitutively expressed HIF1B and HIF1A, which is absent under normoxic conditions but is rapidly up

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Takahiko Kogai, Saima Sajid-Crockett, Lynell S Newmarch, Yan-Yun Liu, and Gregory A Brent

a paired domain-containing transcription factor PAX8, and cAMP-response element-binding proteins, in response to the TSH/cAMP signal ( Taki et al . 2002 ). PI3K inhibition by LY294002 increases the binding of PAX8 to the NUE in PCCL3 rat thyroid

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Lori Cole, Miranda Anderson, Parker B Antin, and Sean W Limesand

transcription factors involved in endocrine cell determination from pluripotent pancreatic progenitors has been established ( Jensen 2004 ). Using this knowledge, we determined PDX1 , NGN3 , and Nkx homeobox proteins, NKX2.2 and NKX6.1 , expression in sheep

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Yarikipati Prathibha and Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran

Introduction Paired box (PAX) genes encode a family of transcription factors that are involved in the development of various tissues during early embryogenesis in vertebrates. They are known to possess paired domain and derived their name by

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Bohan Wang, I Stuart Wood, and Paul Trayhurn

transcriptional regulation by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF-1 ( Grosfeld et al . 2001 , Ambrosini et al . 2002 ). The induction of leptin expression by hypoxia has also been reported in other cell types, including human trophoblast cell lines

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Noriko Sakai, Hiromi Terami, Shinobu Suzuki, Megumi Haga, Ken Nomoto, Nobuko Tsuchida, Ken-ichirou Morohashi, Naoaki Saito, Maki Asada, Megumi Hashimoto, Daisuke Harada, Hiroshi Asahara, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Fumiki Shimada, and Kazuhiro Sakurada

-producing cells in vitro . To achieve this, nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 1 ( NF5A1 that was previously known as SF-1 or AD4BP ) is a key molecule. NF5A1 is the steroidogenic tissue-specific transcription factor that controls the expression