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Open access

Huali Yu, Ye Guo, Yang Zhao, Feng Zhou, Kehan Zhao, Mayuqing Li, Junxiong Wen, Zixuan He, Xiaojuan Zhu, and Xiaoxiao He

brain development and function. For instance, maternal stress-triggered GC elevation changes the fetal brain structure, leading to attention and learning deficits in adulthood ( Weinstock 2008 ). Prenatal stress is highly associated with increased

Open access

Shiao Y Chan, Laura A Hancox, Azucena Martín-Santos, Laurence S Loubière, Merlin N M Walter, Ana-Maria González, Phillip M Cox, Ann Logan, Christopher J McCabe, Jayne A Franklyn, and Mark D Kilby

development. IUGR is often characterized by continued head and brain growth at the expense of other less vital organs resulting in an elevated brain:liver weight ratio postnatally ( Cox & Marton 2009 ). IUGR complicates 5–10% of pregnancies and is associated

Open access

Sara Della Torre, Gianpaolo Rando, Clara Meda, Paolo Ciana, Luisa Ottobrini, and Adriana Maggi

sexual differentiation of reproductive tissues, including the brain ( Phoenix et al. 1959 , Pang et al. 1979 , Tobet et al. 1986 , Korach et al. 1988 , Greco et al. 1991 , Rissman et al. 1997 , Nielsen et al. 2000 , Albrecht et al

Open access

David R Grattan

and development, endocrinology and metabolism, brain and behaviour, reproduction and immune regulation and protection. The breadth of potential functions is astounding and difficult to conceptualise into a theoretical framework. Many of the reported

Open access

Ekaterine Tskitishvili, Christel Pequeux, Carine Munaut, Renaud Viellevoye, Michelle Nisolle, Agnes Noël, and Jean-Michel Foidart

final development of HIE ( Martinez-Biarge et al . 2013 ). As a consequence, brain hypoxia and ischemia due to systemic hypoxemia and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) are primary reasons leading to perinatal HIE ( Grow & Barks 2002 , Ferriero 2004

Open access

S Schmidt, A Hommel, V Gawlik, R Augustin, N Junicke, S Florian, M Richter, D J Walther, D Montag, H-G Joost, and A Schürmann

-specific glucose transporter (GLUT3) to neuropil in adult rat brain . Brain Research 659 292 – 297 . Membrez M Hummler E Beermann F Haefliger JA Savioz R Pedrazzini T Thorens B 2006 GLUT8 is dispensable for embryonic development but

Open access

Pauline Campos, Jamie J Walker, and Patrice Mollard

tools that allow the experimenter to see ‘deep inside’ the brain. Fortunately, in parallel to the development of Ca 2+ indicators, instrumentation has been optimized to render Ca 2+ imaging possible in subcortical brain areas. GRIN lenses GRIN

Open access

Georgina G J Hazell, Song T Yao, James A Roper, Eric R Prossnitz, Anne-Marie O'Carroll, and Stephen J Lolait

hormone release and development. Whether E 2 initiates responses through GPR30 alone or in concert with the other E 2 receptors (e.g. in regions of co-expression) has yet to be investigated, but the cellular distribution of GPR30 in the brain and

Open access

Md Nurul Islam, Yuichiro Mita, Keisuke Maruyama, Ryota Tanida, Weidong Zhang, Hideyuki Sakoda, and Masamitsu Nakazato

left lateral ventricle (8.0 mm anterior from the interaural line, 1.5 mm lateral from the sagittal suture, and 3.0 mm ventral from the dura), according to the Rat Brain Atlas (Paxinos and Watson, Fourth Edition). After the operation, the rats were

Open access

K S Wilson, C S Tucker, E A S Al-Dujaili, M C Holmes, P W F Hadoke, C J Kenyon, and M A Denvir

explore the impact of diminished maternal influences on GC action during early life. External fertilisation allows early development to be manipulated, directly by injection or by changing environmental conditions, from the egg stage. While recent