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Open access

Nele Cielen, Nele Heulens, Karen Maes, Geert Carmeliet, Chantal Mathieu, Wim Janssens, and Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez

addition to smoking, physical inactivity, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation, other factors such as vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the large variability in the prevalence and severity of skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD ( Maltais et al

Open access

Kevin J P Ryan, Zoe C T R Daniel, Lucinda J L Craggs, Tim Parr, and John M Brameld

Introduction Vitamin D (VitD) is a key nutrient for maintaining the health of the musculoskeletal system, with VitD deficiency leading to myopathy, classically characterised by hypotonia, weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscle, and a deterioration

Open access

Ryoko Yamamoto, Tomoko Minamizaki, Yuji Yoshiko, Hirotaka Yoshioka, Kazuo Tanne, Jane E Aubin, and Norihiko Maeda

various kinases/phosphatases; and as a regulator of intracellular signaling. The 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 )–parathyroid hormone (PTH) axis plays a major role in phosphate homeostasis, but clinical features of, for example, vitamin D

Open access

Mark E Cleasby, Pauline M Jamieson, and Philip J Atherton

protein metabolism. Published effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), amino acids, myostatin, urocortins and vitamin D on signalling pathways and effector machinery (glucose transporters, mitochondrial function, translation and activation

Open access

Vikte Lionikaite, Karin L Gustafsson, Anna Westerlund, Sara H Windahl, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Helena Johansson, Claes Ohlsson, H Herschel Conaway, Petra Henning, and Ulf H Lerner

and F). The UTL diet caused a significant decrease in periosteal circumference in both the tibia ( Fig. 2D ) and the femur (Supplementary Fig. 2F) over time. Figure 2 Supplemented vitamin A dose, but not UTL dose, affects cortical bone parameters

Open access

R Prasad, J C Kowalczyk, E Meimaridou, H L Storr, and L A Metherell

oxidative stress. Several antioxidants, both enzymatic and non-enzymatic, are highly expressed in comparison to other tissues. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which recycles α-tocopherol (vitamin A) radicals, is present at the highest levels in the adrenal cortex

Open access

Ya-Li Yang, Li-Rong Ren, Li-Feng Sun, Chen Huang, Tian-Xia Xiao, Bao-Bei Wang, Jie Chen, Brian A Zabel, Peigen Ren, and Jian V Zhang

(R&D Systems), 0.01IU/mL hCG (Sigma) and 15nM (IC 50 =3nM) phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway inhibitor wortmannin (Invitrogen). For groups receiving antibody treatment, follicles were precultured for 1–2h with 0.5μg/mL mouse GPR1

Open access

Gulizar Issa Ameen and Silvia Mora

). Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is both an adipokine and liver-derived protein that transports retinol (vitamin A) in the blood ( Tamori et al . 2006 ). It has been implicated in the metabolic syndrome and adipose tissue inflammation ( Kovacs et al

Open access

Romain Fontaine, Eirill Ager-Wick, Kjetil Hodne, and Finn-Arne Weltzien

49 – 97 . Eds Ganten D & Pfaff D . Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany : Springer . ( https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-71461-0_2 ) Childs GV 1995 Division of labor among gonadotropes . In Vitamins and Hormones , pp 215 – 286 . Ed Litwack G

Open access

Esther Nuñez-Durán, Belén Chanclón, Silva Sütt, Joana Real, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm, Emmelie Cansby, and Margit Mahlapuu

fed a pelleted high-fat diet (45% kilocalories from fat; D12451; Research Diets, New Brunswick, NJ, USA). At the age of 24 weeks, the mice were killed after 4 h of food withdrawal and blood was collected by heart puncture. Pancreas was weighed and