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M J F Newson, G R Pope, E M Roberts, S J Lolait, and A-M O'Carroll

Introduction Apelin, a 36 amino acid peptide, is synthesised as part of a 77 amino acid prepropeptide precursor ( Tatemoto et al . 1998 ) in specific hypothalamic neurones, and appears to mediate its effects via a single G protein-coupled receptor

Open access

Ismael González-García, Pablo B Martínez de Morentin, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Cristina Contreras, Amparo Romero-Picó, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Sulay Tovar, and Miguel López

level, estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ) are expressed in several hypothalamic nuclei with key roles in the regulation of energy balance, such as the arcuate (ARC), paraventricular (PVH) and ventromedial (VMH) ( Simerly et al. 1990

Open access

Scott Haston, Saba Manshaei, and Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera

indicated in the posterior (PL), intermediate (IL) and anterior (AL) lobes. The PL contains the axons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory neurons that release vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT). The IL contains melanotrophs and corticotrohs

Open access

Saeed Alshahrani, Mohammed Mashari Almutairi, Shams Kursan, Eduardo Dias-Junior, Mohamed Mahmoud Almiahuob, Lydia Aguilar-Bryan, and Mauricio Di Fulvio

activating mutations in one of the two subunits forming this channel, i.e., the sulfonylurea receptor-1 gene (SUR1, ABCC8 ) or the inward rectifier K + channel (Kir 6.2 , KCNJ11 ), cause congenital hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia ( Thomas et al . 1995 ) and