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Shuang-Xia Zhao, Shanli Tsui, Anthony Cheung, Raymond S Douglas, Terry J Smith, and J Paul Banga

assayed for TSAbs. Terminal samples were also analyzed for TSH-binding inhibiting antibody (TBI) and total serum thyroxine (T 4 ). Measurement of serum antibodies and thyroid function tests Anti-TSHR antibodies TBI activity was measured in serum samples

Open access

Lesley A Hill, Dimitra A Vassiliadi, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Anna J Anderson, Luke D Boyle, Alixe H M Kilgour, Roland H Stimson, Yoan Machado, Christopher M Overall, Brian R Walker, John G Lewis, and Geoffrey L Hammond

aeruginosa elastase ( Simard et al. 2014 ), causing a conformational change that disrupts CBG steroid-binding activity ( Simard et al. 2015 ). Proteolysis of CBG appears to occur during the onset of inflammation ( Hill et al. 2016 ) and is thought to

Open access

Gulizar Issa Ameen and Silvia Mora

AF1 can modulate gene transcription in the absence of ligand ( Murphy et al . 2011 ), but this is weak. ER activity can be modulated by intracellular signalling pathways ( Barone et al . 2010 ) that phosphorylate ERa. AKT and ERK1

Open access

Valentina Pampanini, Daniela Germani, Antonella Puglianiello, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Ahmed Reda, Iuliia Savchuk, Kristín Rós Kjartansdóttir, Stefano Cianfarani, and Olle Söder

used when running the TLDA assays. Intratesticular steroids measurement Intratesticular testosterone and estradiol were assessed as a measure of Leydig cells (LC) and Sertoli cell (SC) enzymatic activity in 20 and 40 d pp animals. Steroids were

Open access

Vikte Lionikaite, Karin L Gustafsson, Anna Westerlund, Sara H Windahl, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Helena Johansson, Claes Ohlsson, H Herschel Conaway, Petra Henning, and Ulf H Lerner

where it ligates primarily to retinoic acid receptors, regulating gene transcription (reviewed in Tata 2002 , Conaway et al. 2013 , Henning et al. 2015 , Green et al. 2016 ). ATRA can also diffuse to adjacent cells and have paracrine effects

Open access

A Tsuchiya, T Kanno, and T Nishizaki

Introduction Akt is a serine/threonine protein kinase bearing multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription, and cell migration. Akt includes three closely related isoforms Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3

Open access

Lisa Rice, Charlotte E Waters, Jennifer Eccles, Helen Garside, Paula Sommer, Paul Kay, Fiona H Blackhall, Leo Zeef, Brian Telfer, Ian Stratford, Rob Clarke, Dave Singh, Adam Stevens, Anne White, and David W Ray

Introduction Glucocorticoids (GC) act through the GC receptor (GR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors ( Hollenberg et al . 1985 , Weinberger et al . 1985 , 1987 , Perlmann & Evans 1997

Open access

Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, Kostas Tsintzas, Robert Jones, Leigh Breen, Edward T Davis, David J Baker, and Simon W Jones

) with recombinant human vaspin on insulin signalling pathways. First, lean primary myotubes were stimulated with recombinant vaspin (100 ng/mL) acutely for either 5, 10 or 15 min and AKT activity (phosphorylation) quantified using MesoScale immunoassays

Open access

R Dobie, V E MacRae, C Huesa, R van't Hof, S F Ahmed, and C Farquharson

, Socs2 −/− mice are indistinguishable from WT littermates until 4–6 weeks, which coincides with the period of peak GH activity that occurs between postnatal days 20 and 40 ( Wang et al . 2004 ). Circulating levels of GH and IGF1 in Socs2 −/− mice are

Open access

Nerine T Joseph, Kevin Morgan, Robin Sellar, Derek McBride, Robert P Millar, and Ian C Dunn

(GE Healthcare). Riboprobes A riboprobe was synthesised by in vitro transcription of 1 μg of the cGNRHR2 construct linearised with EcoRI using the T7 promoter and a kit (Promega) with [32P] UTP (800 Ci/mmol, Amersham; specific activity of 30 TBq