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Saeed Alshahrani, Mohammed Mashari Almutairi, Shams Kursan, Eduardo Dias-Junior, Mohamed Mahmoud Almiahuob, Lydia Aguilar-Bryan, and Mauricio Di Fulvio

higher specific NKCC1 activity in NKCC1 HE islets relative to NKCC1 WT . Indeed, basal NKCC activity is similar in astrocytes of NKCC1 HE and NKCC1 WT mice in spite of reduced total NKCC protein levels in NKCC1 HE compared to NKCC1 WT cells ( Lenart

Open access

K A Staines, A S Pollard, I M McGonnell, C Farquharson, and A A Pitsillides

. Therefore, there are major questions in embryological skeletal development, including how do condensations get to be the correct size and how is directional growth achieved in limb patterning? The apical ectodermal ridge and the zone of polarising activity

Open access

Shiao Y Chan, Laura A Hancox, Azucena Martín-Santos, Laurence S Loubière, Merlin N M Walter, Ana-Maria González, Phillip M Cox, Ann Logan, Christopher J McCabe, Jayne A Franklyn, and Mark D Kilby

fetal cerebral cortex is potentially TH responsive, expressing a range of TH transporters including MCT8 ( Chan et al . 2011 ) and all the major TR isoforms (nuclear transcription factors that bind to T 3 to regulate gene transcription), and

Open access

Thomas Funck-Brentano, Karin H Nilsson, Robert Brommage, Petra Henning, Ulf H Lerner, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Martine Cohen-Solal, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic, and Claes Ohlsson

TRIzol reagent (Life Technologies) followed by the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen). The RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA using High-Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (#4368814, Applied Biosystems), and real-time PCR analysis was performed using

Open access

Alyce M Martin, Emily W Sun, and Damien J Keating

pathogenesis of human metabolic disorders. Gut hormone regulation of metabolism The regulation of whole-body metabolism involves the integrated activity of multiple metabolically active tissues, including the GI tract, pancreas, adipose tissue, liver

Open access

Andrea Mafficini and Aldo Scarpa

( Swarts et al . 2014 ). The gene product, menin, has several activities linked to its ability to modulate histones methylation, that may be summarised in three broader functions: (i) negative regulation of the cell cycle via increased expression of CDKN2

Open access

Jarrad M Scarlett, Darren D Bowe, Xinxia Zhu, Ayesha K Batra, Wilmon F Grant, and Daniel L Marks

weighed. Rat brains were removed, and hypothalamic blocks were dissected out and stored in RNAlater (Ambion, Inc., Austin, TX, USA) at −80 °C. RNA preparation and reverse transcription-PCR Total RNA was extracted from mice and rat hypothalamic blocks and

Open access

Virginia Rider, Alex Talbott, Anuradha Bhusri, Zach Krumsick, Sierra Foster, Joshua Wormington, and Bruce F Kimler

). β-catenin is a transcriptional regulator that interacts with T-cell factor (TCF/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF)) and converts the TCF/LEF repressor complex into a transcriptional activator ( Daniels & Weis 2005 , Willert & Jones 2006 ). Progesterone

Open access

Gisela Helfer and Qing-Feng Wu

chemerin-F154 and terminates its activity ( Mattern et al . 2014 ). Thus, the C-terminal proteolytic processing serves as a key regulatory mechanism to determine the local and systemic concentration of active chemerin. To date, eight serine proteases have

Open access

Noelia Martínez-Sánchez, José M Moreno-Navarrete, Cristina Contreras, Eva Rial-Pensado, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, José-Manuel Fernández-Real, and Miguel López

treated with control GFP adenoviruses. Together, these results are consistent with the observation that AMPK activity in the VMH mediates the central effects of T 3 on browning of WAT. Figure 4 Effect of AMPK overexpression in the VMH and central T