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Open access

Shiho Fujisaka, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, and Kazuyuki Tobe

tools and techniques have revealed close associations between bacteria and metabolic diseases. However, maintenance of a gnotobiotic status is expensive and requires experienced staff, and the available facilities for GF animals are limited. Further

Open access

Yanli Miao, Haojie Qin, Yi Zhong, Kai Huang, and Caijun Rao

asprosin mainly focused on glucose homeostasis ( Li et al. 2019 ), it has been reported that asprosin is related to a range of metabolic diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ( Ke et al. 2020 ), insulin resistance ( Yuan et al. 2020

Open access

Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, Kostas Tsintzas, Robert Jones, Leigh Breen, Edward T Davis, David J Baker, and Simon W Jones

implications for the treatment of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes ( Bluher 2014 , Bluher & Mantzoros 2015 ). It has long been established that the accumulation of abdominal fat (central adiposity) is associated with insulin resistance ( Pratley et

Open access

Vicki Chen, Gia V Shelp, Jacob L Schwartz, Niklas D J Aardema, Madison L Bunnell, and Clara E Cho

( Armitage et al. 2005 , Kind et al. 2006 ). However, limited attention has been on the role of micronutrient intakes during pregnancy in programming the long-term phenotypes of offspring. Concurrent with the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases

Open access

Esther Nuñez-Durán, Belén Chanclón, Silva Sütt, Joana Real, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm, Emmelie Cansby, and Margit Mahlapuu

Introduction Type 2 diabetes, characterised by hyperglycaemia in the context of insulin resistance, is one of the most common metabolic diseases in the world. Insulin production from pancreatic β-cells plays a vital role in maintaining the

Open access

Bettina Geidl-Flueck and Philipp A Gerber

a major trigger for the development of metabolic diseases. It is assumed, however, that factors other than an imbalanced energy intake and expenditure can influence metabolic health. A well-balanced macronutrient intake, characterized by a moderate

Open access

Erica Yeo, Patricia L Brubaker, and Deborah M Sloboda

insulin resistance. So how does the maternal pancreas cope with the sustained insulin demand of pregnancy? Pancreatic β-cells are plastic and can respond to changes in insulin demand and, although this is pathological in metabolic diseases, this same

Open access

Michael Rouse, Antoine Younès, and Josephine M Egan

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that, in 2013, by global estimates has a worldwide prevalence of 382 million people. The number is expected to increase to 592 million by 2035, most having type 2 DM (T2DM

Open access

Nami Kim, Jung Ok Lee, Hye Jeong Lee, Yong Woo Lee, Hyung Ip Kim, Su Jin Kim, Sun Hwa Park, Chul Su Lee, Sun Woo Ryoo, Geum-Sook Hwang, and Hyeon Soo Kim

compound effectively ameliorates hyperglycemia through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis ( Jeong et al . 2014 ). As eugenol is an analogue of isoeugenol, thus isoeugenol could be another molecular target for metabolic disease. However, no detailed

Open access

Laura L Gathercole, Nikolaos Nikolaou, Shelley E Harris, Anastasia Arvaniti, Toryn M Poolman, Jonathan M Hazlehurst, Denise V Kratschmar, Marijana Todorčević, Ahmad Moolla, Niall Dempster, Ryan C Pink, Michael F Saikali, Liz Bentley, Trevor M Penning, Claes Ohlsson, Carolyn L Cummins, Matti Poutanen, Alex Odermatt, Roger D Cox, and Jeremy W Tomlinson

hormone and/or bile acid availability. Despite its central position, only a small number of studies have investigated AKR1D1 in the context of metabolic disease; hepatic gene expression is decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes ( Valanejad et al