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T V Novoselova, R Larder, D Rimmington, C Lelliott, E H Wynn, R J Gorrigan, P H Tate, L Guasti, The Sanger Mouse Genetics Project, S O’Rahilly, A J L Clark, D W Logan, A P Coll and L F Chan

either global P -values for genotype adjusted for multiple correction testing, or (in the cases of sexual dimorphism) the P -value is the impact of genotype for that sex. Animal husbandry The care and use of all animals were carried out in

Open access

Lianne Abrahams, Nina M Semjonous, Phil Guest, Agnieszka Zielinska, Beverly Hughes, Gareth G Lavery and Paul M Stewart

, although the ultimate reason for the observed sexual dimorphism remains obscure. 11β-HSD1/H6PDH HETs and double HETs have a urinary 11-DHC profile that is comparable to that of WT animals ( Fig. 2 ). Loss of one 11β-HSD1 and/or one H6PDH allele therefore

Open access

Sara Della Torre, Gianpaolo Rando, Clara Meda, Paolo Ciana, Luisa Ottobrini and Adriana Maggi

-temporal expression of ERα and ERβ was reported to contribute to organize sex differences that are not associated with reproduction, such as the stress response and cognition ( Mogi et al. 2015 ). It is conceivable that the sexual dimorphism observed in

Open access

David E Maridas, Victoria E DeMambro, Phuong T Le, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Subburaman Mohan and Clifford J Rosen

murine embryonic and postnatal mechanisms of IGFBP-4 without specifically looking at sexual dimorphism ( Ning et al . 2006 , 2008 ). In contrast, we examined pubertal and adult skeletal maintenance in C57BL/6J mice by phenotyping mice with a germline

Open access

L A Nolan and A Levy

striking sexual dimorphism . Journal of Physiology 549 835 – 843 . Oishi Y Okuda M Takahashi H Fujii T Morii S 1993 Cellular proliferation in the anterior pituitary gland of normal adult rats: influences of sex, estrous cycle, and

Open access

David O'Regan, Christopher J Kenyon, Jonathan R Seckl and Megan C Holmes

: MacGraw Hill . Fulton CT Stallone JN 2002 Sexual dimorphism in prostanoid-potentiated vascular contraction: roles of endothelium and ovarian steroids . American Journal of Physiology 283 H2062 – H2073 . Garcia

Open access

M J F Newson, G R Pope, E M Roberts, S J Lolait and A-M O'Carroll

axis measurements. Many autoimmune diseases exhibit a significant sexual dimorphism, including autoimmune thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, which have been associated with dysregulation of the HPA axis ( Sternberg 1997

Open access

Ryun S Ahn, Jee H Choi, Bum C Choi, Jung H Kim, Sung H Lee and Simon S Sung

: sexual dimorphism and changes across the estrous cycle . Endocrinology 138 3842 – 3848 . doi:10.1210/en.138.9.3842 . Bao AM Liu RY van Someren EJ Hofman MA Cao YX Zhou JN 2003 Diurnal rhythm of free estradiol during the menstrual

Open access

Ismael González-García, Pablo B Martínez de Morentin, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Cristina Contreras, Amparo Romero-Picó, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Sulay Tovar and Miguel López

. ( ) 9526077 10.1016/S0169-328X(97)00351-3 Palmer BF Clegg DJ 2015 The sexual dimorphism of obesity . Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 402 113 – 119 . (

Open access

Rachel V Richardson, Emma J Batchen, Adrian J W Thomson, Rowan Darroch, Xinlu Pan, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Wiktoria Wyrzykowska, Kathleen Scullion, Emad A S Al-Dujaili, Mary E Diaz, Carmel M Moran, Christopher J Kenyon, Gillian A Gray and Karen E Chapman

1982 Testosterone-mediated sexual dimorphism of the rodent heart. Ventricular lysosomes, mitochondria, and cell growth are modulated by androgens . Circulation Research 50 782 – 787 . ( doi:10.1161/01.RES.50.6.782 ) Kuster GM Kotlyar E