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Open access

Sandra Pereira, Wen Qin Yu, María E Frigolet, Jacqueline L Beaudry, Yaniv Shpilberg, Edward Park, Cristina Dirlea, B L Grégoire Nyomba, Michael C Riddell, I George Fantus, and Adria Giacca

Introduction Obesity leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because of insulin resistance, and insulin resistance of obesity is due to elevated circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) and cytokines ( Boden 1997 , Lewis et al . 2002

Open access

Bettina Geidl-Flueck and Philipp A Gerber

hypothesized that an increased de novo lipogenesis after fructose intake in parallel with a decreased fatty acid oxidation leads to hepatic fat deposition. ACC, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; CPT1a, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A; FA

Open access

Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall

patients with NAFLD ( Younossi et al . 2011 ). High-fat (HF) diets promote weight gain leading to an increase in adipose tissue mass (i.e. obesity). Simultaneously, these HF diets cause an increase in levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and

Open access

Antonio Gázquez, Francisca Rodríguez, María Sánchez-Campillo, Lidia E Martínez-Gascón, Marino B Arnao, Pedro Saura-Garre, María D Albaladejo-Otón, and Elvira Larqué

transport of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA) by GDM ( Herrera & Ortega-Senovilla 2010 , Leveille et al. 2018 ), likely as a consequence of alterations in fatty acids (FA) transport proteins related to phospholipids transfer such as the major

Open access

Lina Lawenius, Hannah Colldén, Karin Horkeby, Jianyao Wu, Louise Grahnemo, Liesbeth Vandenput, Claes Ohlsson, and Klara Sjögren

regulation through several possible mechanisms. Gut microbiota fermentation of dietary fiber produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that strengthens the gut barrier. SCFAs function as an energy source for intestinal epithelial cells, regulate host immune

Open access

Hiroyuki Enomoto, Kinuyo Iwata, Keisuke Matsumoto, Mai Otsuka, Akio Morita, and Hitoshi Ozawa

3 , and Pdyn ) and immunohistochemistry (IHC; kisspeptin). The blood samples were utilized for LH, glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) assays. All images were captured with a light microscope (BX51; Olympus

Open access

I J Bujalska, L L Gathercole, J W Tomlinson, C Darimont, J Ermolieff, A N Fanjul, P A Rejto, and P M Stewart

differentiation genes involved in lipid metabolism and lipid transport including glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4; Hotamisligil et al . 1996 ); many of these genes are regulated by glucocorticoids ( Wu et al

Open access

Tina Seidu, Patrick McWhorter, Jessie Myer, Rabita Alamgir, Nicole Eregha, Dilip Bogle, Taylor Lofton, Carolyn Ecelbarger, and Stanley Andrisse

triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFA), thus driving lipid accumulation mainly in the liver ( Samuel & Shulman 2016 ). Previous work has shown that low-dose DHT female mice displayed obesity-independent impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and

Open access

Shiho Fujisaka, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, and Kazuyuki Tobe

Physiological role of the gut microbiota Nutrient metabolism and absorption Degradation of indigestible polysaccharides Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites generated from the fermentation of insoluble dietary fiber and

Open access

Alyce M Martin, Emily W Sun, and Damien J Keating

serving distinct metabolic functions. The body’s surplus energy is primarily stored in WAT as triglycerides and liberated from the adipocyte as free fatty acids and glycerol when required. Excess adiposity secondary to increased fat storage within WAT is a