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Kunihisa Hamano, Yuko Nakagawa, Yoshiaki Ohtsu, Longfei Li, Johan Medina, Yuji Tanaka, Katsuyoshi Masuda, Mitsuhisa Komatsu, and Itaru Kojima

Introduction Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells and modulates the effects of incretins and acetylcholine ( Ashcroft & Rorsman 1989 , Rasmussen et al . 1990 , Rorsman 1997 , Newsholme et al . 2014 ). We

Open access

Antonio Gázquez, Francisca Rodríguez, María Sánchez-Campillo, Lidia E Martínez-Gascón, Marino B Arnao, Pedro Saura-Garre, María D Albaladejo-Otón, and Elvira Larqué

insulin (Novo Nordisk) every morning in order to maintain glycaemia values of mothers between 100 and 400 mg/mL. The units of insulin administered to pregnant rats varied depending on daily glucose values but were similar in both GDM and GDM + ADI groups

Open access

Bettina Geidl-Flueck and Philipp A Gerber

includes obesity (particularly visceral adipose tissue accumulation), dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Importantly, this syndrome not only affects adults but also children and adolescents, in particular in developing countries

Open access

Corinne Caillaud, Mie Mechta, Heidi Ainge, Andreas N Madsen, Patricia Ruell, Emilie Mas, Catherine Bisbal, Jacques Mercier, Stephen Twigg, Trevor A Mori, David Simar, and Romain Barrès

as a regulator involved in glucose metabolism. Results of early studies carried out of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) indicated that EPO not only treated anemia but also improved insulin sensitivity ( Borissova et al . 1993 , Mak 1996

Open access

Taira Wada, Yukiko Yamamoto, Yukiko Takasugi, Hirotake Ishii, Taketo Uchiyama, Kaori Saitoh, Masahiro Suzuki, Makoto Uchiyama, Hikari Yoshitane, Yoshitaka Fukada, and Shigeki Shimba

et al. 1999 ). Because adiponectin is a crucial factor in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress, reduced adiponectin levels play a causal role in the development of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome

Open access

Stuart A Lanham, Dominique Blache, Richard O C Oreffo, Abigail L Fowden, and Alison J Forhead

.0 ± 0.5 10.0 ± 0.5 NS P < 0.05 NS Insulin (ng/mL) 0.30 ± 0.06 0.05 ± 0.01 b 0.34 ± 0.17 0.04 ± 0.01 b P < 0.005 NS NS Glucose (mmol/L) 0.71 ± 0.08 1.02 ± 0.09 0.73 ± 0.13 1.49 ± 0.32 b P

Open access

Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall

prevent and/or reverse HF diet-induced hepatic and adipose tissue inflammation as well as hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. Materials and methods Phenylmethimazole (C10) solutions

Open access

Nami Kim, Jung Ok Lee, Hye Jeong Lee, Yong Woo Lee, Hyung Ip Kim, Su Jin Kim, Sun Hwa Park, Chul Su Lee, Sun Woo Ryoo, Geum-Sook Hwang, and Hyeon Soo Kim

Introduction In the muscles, glucose uptake occurs through two major pathways, namely insulin-dependent glucose uptake and non-insulin-dependent glucose uptake. In muscle cells, binding of insulin to insulin receptors increases the activation of the

Open access

Manon M Roustit, Joan M Vaughan, Pauline M Jamieson, and Mark E Cleasby

Introduction Impaired insulin-stimulated glucose disposal into skeletal muscle is a major component of the insulin resistance (IR) that develops in advance of type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( DeFronzo & Tripathy 2009 ). In addition, obesity and IR commonly

Open access

S Schmidt, A Hommel, V Gawlik, R Augustin, N Junicke, S Florian, M Richter, D J Walther, D Montag, H-G Joost, and A Schürmann

Introduction The glucose transporter family comprises 14 members, GLUT1–12, GLUT14 and HMIT1 (H + / myo -inositol symporter; Joost & Thorens 2001 , Scheepers et al . 2004 ). GLUT3 exhibits a high affinity for glucose ( K m =1.8 mM) and was