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Zhenguang Zhang, Agnes E Coutinho, Tak Yung Man, Tiina M J Kipari, Patrick W F Hadoke, Donald M Salter, Jonathan R Seckl, and Karen E Chapman

arthritis, the role of endogenous corticosteroids in regulating inflammation is less well understood ( Coutinho & Chapman 2011 ). Nevertheless, macrophages have emerged as a key target for the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of endogenous

Open access

Maayan Vatarescu, Sapir Bechor, Yulia Haim, Tal Pecht, Tanya Tarnovscki, Noa Slutsky, Ori Nov, Hagit Shapiro, Avishai Shemesh, Angel Porgador, Nava Bashan, and Assaf Rudich

inflammation (particularly macrophage infiltration) characterizes obese persons who develop insulin resistance ( Harman-Boehm et al . 2007 ), but to a much lesser degree age, sex and BMI-matched obese persons who remain insulin sensitive ( Kloting et al

Open access

Hyo Youl Moon, Parkyong Song, Cheol Soo Choi, Sung Ho Ryu, and Pann-Ghill Suh

) ( Ruderman & Prentki 2004 ). Based on the requirement for AMPK to alleviate hepatic steatosis, there is growing demand to identify mediators of AMPK activation in response to dynamic physiological activity. Although macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF

Open access

Farhana Naznin, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Cherl NamKoong, Abu Saleh Md Moin, Hideyuki Sakoda, and Masamitsu Nakazato

12 weeks. Expression of the ghrelin receptor in both the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus were downregulated in HFD-fed mice. We also investigated inflammation in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus by performing immunohistochemistry of macrophages

Open access

Amanda E Garza, Elijah Trefts, Isis A Katayama Rangel, Danielle Brooks, Rene Baudrand, Burhanuddin Moize, Jose R Romero, Sanjay Ranjit, Thitinan Treesaranuwattana, Tham M Yao, Gail K Adler, Luminita H Pojoga, and Gordon H Williams

weight/body weight ratio in any of the four treatment groups or two genotypes ( Table 1 ). As a measure of cardiac injury, as described in the methods section. Macrophage infiltrates and focal adhesions were minimal to not observed in the aldosterone

Open access

Gisela Helfer and Qing-Feng Wu

elastase and cathepsin G into the milieu ( Wittamer et al . 2003 , 2005 ). Subsequently, chemerin functions to enhance the chemotaxis of immature dendritic cells and macrophages, bridging innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of immune response

Open access

Gulizar Issa Ameen and Silvia Mora

( Friedman & Halaas 1998 ). Leptin stimulates monocytes and macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines including: IL6, TNFa and IL12 ( Gainsford et al . 1996 ) and stimulates CCL2 production in human hepatic stellate cells ( Aleffi et al . 2005

Open access

Katie J Mylonas, Neil A Turner, Sumia A Bageghni, Christopher J Kenyon, Christopher I White, Kieran McGregor, Robert A Kimmitt, Richard Sulston, Valerie Kelly, Brian R Walker, Karen E Porter, Karen E Chapman, and Gillian A Gray

necrotic tissue and matrix debris from the damaged myocardium ( Frangogiannis 2012 , Yan et al . 2013 ), but they are also important to ensure transition to repair. Macrophage polarization toward a reparative phenotype in the healing myocardium is

Open access

Mark E Cleasby, Pauline M Jamieson, and Philip J Atherton

pro-inflammatory cell types, most notably macrophages ( Lumeng et al. 2007 ). Macrophage infiltration has also been demonstrated by a number of groups ( Hevener et al. 2007 , Fink et al. 2014 ), but not all ( Tam et al. 2012 ), to be a feature

Open access

Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall

have shown that C10 prevents palmitate- and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting TLR4 signaling, specifically by blocking transcriptional activity of