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Open access

Shiho Fujisaka, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, and Kazuyuki Tobe

tools and techniques have revealed close associations between bacteria and metabolic diseases. However, maintenance of a gnotobiotic status is expensive and requires experienced staff, and the available facilities for GF animals are limited. Further

Open access

Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall

of metabolic diseases, specifically obesity-related diseases such as T2DM and NAFLD. Obesity alone is considered the most important risk factor for development of NAFLD and is the driver of inflammation in this disease that is responsible for its

Open access

Bettina Geidl-Flueck and Philipp A Gerber

( Noubiap et al. 2022 ). Similarly, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is increasing ( Moore 2010 , Sahota et al. 2020 , Riazi et al. 2022 ). The metabolic syndrome, with

Open access

Erica Yeo, Patricia L Brubaker, and Deborah M Sloboda

insulin resistance. So how does the maternal pancreas cope with the sustained insulin demand of pregnancy? Pancreatic β-cells are plastic and can respond to changes in insulin demand and, although this is pathological in metabolic diseases, this same

Open access

Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, Kostas Tsintzas, Robert Jones, Leigh Breen, Edward T Davis, David J Baker, and Simon W Jones

implications for the treatment of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes ( Bluher 2014 , Bluher & Mantzoros 2015 ). It has long been established that the accumulation of abdominal fat (central adiposity) is associated with insulin resistance ( Pratley et

Open access

Vicki Chen, Gia V Shelp, Jacob L Schwartz, Niklas D J Aardema, Madison L Bunnell, and Clara E Cho

with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease ( Martin-Gronert & Ozanne 2006 , Taylor & Poston 2007 ), with extensive past research that has emphasized metabolic consequences of gestational caloric or macronutrient intakes

Open access

Stuart A Morgan, Laura L Gathercole, Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Jeremy Tomlinson, Paul M Stewart, and Gareth G Lavery

pre-receptor GC metabolism in contributing to age-associated chronic disease, but raises an important question: ‘Precisely how does 11β-HSD1 drive age-related metabolic dysfunction?’ Previous studies have shown 11β-HSD1 to increase with age in the skin

Open access

Gisela Helfer and Qing-Feng Wu

various roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and metabolic disease in multiple organs such as adipose tissue, lung, skin, cardiovascular system, reproductive tract, digestive tract, skeleton and joints. The biological function of chemerin as pro- or

Open access

Esther Nuñez-Durán, Belén Chanclón, Silva Sütt, Joana Real, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm, Emmelie Cansby, and Margit Mahlapuu

Introduction Type 2 diabetes, characterised by hyperglycaemia in the context of insulin resistance, is one of the most common metabolic diseases in the world. Insulin production from pancreatic β-cells plays a vital role in maintaining the

Open access

Yanli Miao, Haojie Qin, Yi Zhong, Kai Huang, and Caijun Rao

asprosin mainly focused on glucose homeostasis ( Li et al. 2019 ), it has been reported that asprosin is related to a range of metabolic diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ( Ke et al. 2020 ), insulin resistance ( Yuan et al. 2020