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Open access

Jin-Ran Chen, Oxana P Lazarenko, Haijun Zhao, Alexander W Alund and Kartik Shankar

( Vrtačnik et al . 2014 ). These mechanisms of epigenetics are important in regulating differentiation of different types of cells during both prenatal and postnatal development. Maternal nutrition appears to influence epigenetic alterations in the offspring

Open access

David O'Regan, Christopher J Kenyon, Jonathan R Seckl and Megan C Holmes

), commonly used in obstetric practice, all lower birth weight. The adult offspring show permanently elevated glucose and insulin levels and hypertension ( Levitt et al . 1996 , Nyirenda et al . 1998 , 2001 , Langdown et al . 2001 , Sugden et al

Open access

M A Hyatt, D H Keisler, H Budge and M E Symonds

, particularly if accompanied by accelerated postnatal growth ( Ong et al . 2000 , Stettler et al . 2003 ). Maternal parity can determine birth weight ( Lumey & Stein 1997 , Gardner et al . 2007 ), postnatal growth and the longer term health of the offspring

Open access

Valentina Pampanini, Daniela Germani, Antonella Puglianiello, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Ahmed Reda, Iuliia Savchuk, Kristín Rós Kjartansdóttir, Stefano Cianfarani and Olle Söder

assigned to feeding dams. To standardize postnatal conditions (i.e. to ensure an equal access to lactation) litter sizes were reduced to six offspring. Pup weights were recorded on day 0 and subsequently once a week until the end of experiments. At 21 days

Open access

David R Grattan

infertility McNeilly (2001 a , b ) and Liu et al . (2014) Stress responses Reduced response to stress during late pregnancy and lactation, to minimise exposure of offspring to glucocorticoids Prolactin is anxiolytic and reduced stress responses in

Open access

K S Wilson, C S Tucker, E A S Al-Dujaili, M C Holmes, P W F Hadoke, C J Kenyon and M A Denvir

offspring when placental metabolism of endogenous GC is inhibited. However, these studies, which generally involve maternal treatment with GC, do not consider foetal autonomy, the placental barrier or the interrelationship between foetal and maternal

Open access

E J Agnew, A Garcia-Burgos, R V Richardson, H Manos, A J W Thomson, K Sooy, G Just, N Z M Homer, C M Moran, P J Brunton, G A Gray and K E Chapman

utilised here were not examined. However, in humans and in animals, there is an association between excessive glucocorticoid exposure in utero and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adult offspring (reviewed in Rog-Zielinska et al. 2014

Open access

Jethro S Johnson, Monica N Opiyo, Marian Thomson, Karim Gharbi, Jonathan R Seckl, Andreas Heger and Karen E Chapman

11b1 Del1/De1l mice were generated by crossing Hsd11b1 f/f mice with Hprt-Cre transgenic mice ( Tang et al . 2002 ), resulting in germline disruption of the Hsd11b1 gene. Cre + offspring were bred with C57Bl/6 and Cre − offspring in which

Open access

Lianne Abrahams, Nina M Semjonous, Phil Guest, Agnieszka Zielinska, Beverly Hughes, Gareth G Lavery and Paul M Stewart

stimulations tests in all possible allele combinations of offspring derived from 11β-HSD1/H6PDH double heterozygote (HET) crosses. Materials and Methods Materials ACTH was purchased from Sigma (cat. no. A-0298). The corticosterone enzyme immunoassay kit was

Open access

Geoffrey L Hammond

-deficient pregnant women as compared with women with normal plasma CBG levels ( Lei et al. 2015 ). However, the sex ratio of offspring delivered by women with the secretion-deficient CBG variant (CBG A51V) was significantly female skewed ( Lei et al. 2015 ). This