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Sian J S Simpson, Lorna I F Smith, Peter M Jones, and James E Bowe

. There is some evidence that placentally derived CRH and urocortins are involved in various biological functions associated with pregnancy ( Thomson 2013 , You et al . 2014 ). Thus, pregnancy represents one possible physiological state in which the

Open access

Antonia Hufnagel, Laura Dearden, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, and Susan E Ozanne

Introduction Around 50% of women worldwide enter pregnancy overweight or obese ( Hill et al. 2019 ). Maternal obesity is the main risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnancy, which affects

Open access

Ying Sze, Joana Fernandes, Zofia M Kołodziejczyk, and Paula J Brunton

Introduction Stress experienced during pregnancy has detrimental effects on the offspring across the life course, beginning during fetal development, persisting through the postnatal period and into adulthood ( Glover et al. 2018 ). This

Open access

David R Grattan

hyperprolactinemia during lactation, and thereby promote the milk production that is essential to this state, there is an apparent loss of sensitivity of the short-loop feedback system during late pregnancy and lactation ( Grattan et al . 2008 ). This is a

Open access

Antonio Gázquez, Francisca Rodríguez, María Sánchez-Campillo, Lidia E Martínez-Gascón, Marino B Arnao, Pedro Saura-Garre, María D Albaladejo-Otón, and Elvira Larqué

is affected by hyperglycaemia in pregnancy, most of those due to GDM ( International Diabetes Federation 2017 ). GDM is associated with neonatal adverse outcomes such as large for gestational age infants and increased risk of obesity and

Open access

Erica Yeo, Patricia L Brubaker, and Deborah M Sloboda

Introduction To accommodate the dynamic energy demands of pregnancy, while still maintaining metabolic homeostasis, significant alterations to maternal metabolism are required ( Fig. 1 ). Impaired or inappropriate maternal adaptations can

Open access

Judith E Cartwright and Paula Juliet Williams

control of the gonadotrophic axis, KISS1 has been found to be important in placentation, pregnancy and cardiovascular function ( Bilban et al . 2004 , Hiden et al . 2007 , Mead et al . 2007 b ). The physiological importance of KISS1 is further

Open access

Emma Castrique, Marta Fernandez-Fuente, Paul Le Tissier, Andy Herman, and Andy Levy

the physical expansion of the pituitary during pregnancy and lactation ( Gonzalez et al . 1988 , Elster et al . 1991 , Dinc et al . 1998 , Chanson et al . 2001 ). Several morphometric studies have identified the prolactin (PRL) cell population

Open access

Vicki Chen, Gia V Shelp, Jacob L Schwartz, Niklas D J Aardema, Madison L Bunnell, and Clara E Cho

Introduction Diets consumed during pregnancy can induce persistent alterations in the regulation of energy balance and influence susceptibility to chronic diseases ( McMillen & Robinson 2005 ). Both over- and under-nutrition are associated

Open access

David O'Regan, Christopher J Kenyon, Jonathan R Seckl, and Megan C Holmes

to alter vascular responsivity to vasoconstrictors. Similar findings have been reported with DEX administration during pregnancy in sheep ( Stein et al . 1994 , Padbury et al . 1995 , Tseng et al . 1995 ). To study more closely diurnal