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Qinghua Wang, Jing Tang, Shujun Jiang, Zan Huang, Anying Song, Siyuan Hou, Xiang Gao, and Hai-Bin Ruan

the top and average levels shown at the bottom. Data presented as mean ±  s.e.m. * P  < 0.05, ** P  < 0.01 and *** P  < 0.001 by two-tailed t -test. Improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in MAGED1 KO mice Activation of

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Charlene Diepenbroek, Leslie Eggels, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek, Mireille J Serlie, and Susanne E la Fleur

Introduction The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), associated with obesity, is taking epidemic proportions. The molecular drivers involved in the pathogenesis of lower insulin sensitivity in obesity include, but are not limited to

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Le Bu, Qian Yao, Zhimin Liu, Wei Tang, Junjie Zou, and Shen Qu

insulin sensitivity. First, high levels of galanin receptors are found in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of rats ( Li et al . 2004 ), i.e. the key sites involved in regulating glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity. Second, diabetic rats have an

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Holly M Johnson, Erin Stanfield, Grace J Campbell, Erica E Eberl, Gregory J Cooney, and Kim S Bell-Anderson

exert varying effects on insulin sensitivity measured under hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp conditions ( Storlien et al. 1987 ). Much research has been fat-focused and concentrated on the association of ectopic lipid with the development of insulin

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Fernando Escrivá, M Lucía Gavete, Yasmín Fermín, Coralia Pérez, Nilda Gallardo, Carmen Alvarez, Antonio Andrés, Manuel Ros, and José M Carrascosa

Introduction Ageing is associated with a moderate decrease in peripheral insulin sensitivity in humans ( De Fronzo 1981 , Fink et al. 1983 , Rowe et al. 1983 ) and rodents ( Goodman et al. 1983 , Narimiya et al. 1984

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Ellen R Lubbers, Edward O List, Adam Jara, Lucila Sackman-Sala, Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Manuel D Gahete, Rhonda D Kineman, Ravneet Boparai, Andrzej Bartke, John J Kopchick, and Darlene E Berryman

, showing negative correlations with many age- and obesity-related diseases and a positive correlation with longevity and insulin sensitivity ( McKee Alderman et al . 2010 , Arai et al . 2011 ). Adiponectin has also been linked to healthy phenotypes in

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Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, Kostas Tsintzas, Robert Jones, Leigh Breen, Edward T Davis, David J Baker, and Simon W Jones

important contributors to tissue crosstalk and systemic inflammatory burden. The functional role of the adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, as mediators of metabolic health and insulin sensitivity are well described. However, at present the functional role

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Keld Fosgerau, Kirsten Raun, Cecilia Nilsson, Kirsten Dahl, and Birgitte S Wulff

improvement of insulin sensitivity. As the melanocortin receptors are involved in several different physiological responses, it is important to obtain agonists that are selective for the MC4-R in order to avoid possible side effects derived from activation of

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Paz Vital, Elena Larrieta, and Marcia Hiriart

explaining this difference ( Murphy et al. 2004 ). Different rodent models also show differences in insulin sensitivity and secretion between genders. For example, glucose-induced insulin secretion by isolated pancreatic islets from female Wistar

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Sujith Rajan, Kripa Shankar, Muheeb Beg, Salil Varshney, Abhishek Gupta, Ankita Srivastava, Durgesh Kumar, Raj K Mishra, Zakir Hussain, Jiaur R Gayen, and Anil N Gaikwad

2013 ). Numerous studies, on both animals and humans, have inferred negative correlation between body weight and insulin sensitivity ( Cinti 2012 ). Weight gain in the body is largely due to accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT); thus, insulin