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Stijn L J Van Herck, Stijn Geysens, Edward Bald, Grazyna Chwatko, Evelyne Delezie, Elham Dianati, R G Ahmed, and Veerle M Darras

, we have used the chicken embryo to study the effect of maternal MMI treatment on the developing embryo. It has been shown earlier that MMI is taken up from the egg by the embryo and is capable of disturbing development, including brain development

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Juan Bernal

Introduction The actions of thyroid hormones (TH) on brain develop­ment and function are among the more relevant of these hormones, strongly influencing neuromotor performance, cognition and mood. Multiple conditions cause impaired TH action

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Yuhui Liu, Le Zhang, Jing Li, Zhongyan Shan, and Weiping Teng

Introduction It is well known that iodine is a trace element essential for the synthesis of triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), which play a crucial role in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially the brain

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Meredith A Kelleher, Hannah K Palliser, David W Walker, and Jonathan J Hirst

( Lackman et al . 2001 ). Placental insufficiency and IUGR have many implications for foetal brain development. Along with clinical observations, animal studies have also revealed the morphological changes and neurological impairments associated with foetal

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Michela Campolo, Akbar Ahmad, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Rossana Morabito, Emanuela Esposito, and Salvatore Cuzzocrea

attenuate the development of acute brain injury 1 and 6 h after TBI. On the contrary, combination therapy with melatonin and DEX reduced the degree of brain injury and inflammatory cell infiltration (D). The image shown is representative of at least three

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J Patel, K Landers, H Li, R H Mortimer, and K Richard

receptor activation in the brain. Ontogenesis of thyroid hormone action in fetal development There is growing evidence that thyroid hormones act on embryological and fetal tissues early in development. Thyroid hormone and associated receptors are

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Huali Yu, Ye Guo, Yang Zhao, Feng Zhou, Kehan Zhao, Mayuqing Li, Junxiong Wen, Zixuan He, Xiaojuan Zhu, and Xiaoxiao He

brain development and function. For instance, maternal stress-triggered GC elevation changes the fetal brain structure, leading to attention and learning deficits in adulthood ( Weinstock 2008 ). Prenatal stress is highly associated with increased

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Hiranya Pintana, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, and Siriporn C Chattipakorn

SL 1991 Development of glutamate neurotoxicity in cortical cultures: induction of vulnerability by insulin . Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research 62 293 – 296 . ( doi:10.1016/0165-3806(91)90179-M ) Stranahan AM Norman ED Lee K

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Han Yan, Matthew Mitschelen, Georgina V Bixler, Robert M Brucklacher, Julie A Farley, Song Han, Willard M Freeman, and William E Sonntag

IGF1 deficiency and replacement on brain gene expression that we expect contribute to long-term modifications in brain development, function, learning and memory. To this end, we used a unique model of GH/IGF1 deficiency (the Lewis dwarf ( dw/dw ) rat

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Ángel Enrique Céspedes Rubio, Maria José Pérez-Alvarez, Catalina Lapuente Chala, and Francisco Wandosell

. 2001 ). Estradiol has an important impact on brain development and normal physiology, but also after injury. Cellular targets of its action are both neurons and the main glial cell types (astrocytes, microglia, radial glia and oligodendrocytes