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Mark E Cleasby, Pauline M Jamieson, and Philip J Atherton

. 2014 ). It has also been associated with increased mortality in some prospective studies ( Landi et al. 2013 ) but not others ( Cesari et al. 2009 ). The concept of ‘sarcopenic obesity’ (SO) was introduced to highlight a syndrome present in a

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Pegah JafariNasabian, Julia E Inglis, Wendimere Reilly, Owen J Kelly, and Jasminka Z Ilich

: osteopenic/osteoporotic obesity and sarcopenic obesity, of which each one could also exist on its own ( Ilich et al. 2014 b , 2016 ). All of these conditions may lead to increased risk of fractures and morbidity and declined functionality ( Fig. 2

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Yoshinori Kanemaru, Norio Harada, Satoko Shimazu-Kuwahara, Shunsuke Yamane, Eri Ikeguchi, Yuki Murata, Sakura Kiyobayashi, Tomonobu Hatoko, and Nobuya Inagaki

causes insulin resistance through inflammation ( Kalyani et al . 2014 ). This age-related change is called ‘sarcopenic obesity’, and is an important health issue in aging societies ( Prado et al . 2012 , Cleasy et al . 2016 ). Obesity is related to a

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Urszula T Iwaniec and Russell T Turner

due to excess adipose tissue will be discussed later. Increased muscle mass and function is likely to contribute to the positive impact of higher BMI on bone health. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese individuals appear to be at a greater risk for lower

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Hassina Ould Hamouda, Bernadette Delplanque, Yacir Benomar, Delphine Crépin, Laure Riffault, Pascale LeRuyet, Cécile Bonhomme, and Mohammed Taouis

2014 Muscle contractile and metabolic dysfunction is a common feature of sarcopenia of aging and chronic diseases: from sarcopenic obesity to cachexia . Clinical Nutrition 33 737 – 748 . ( doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.007 ) Cancelas J Prieto PG

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Manon M Roustit, Joan M Vaughan, Pauline M Jamieson, and Mark E Cleasby

cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation . Endocrinology 147 31 – 38 . ( doi:10.1210/en.2005-1033 ) Stenholm S Harris TB Rantanen T Visser M Kritchevsky SB Ferrucci L 2008 Sarcopenic obesity: definition, cause and

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Ferran Jardí, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Nari Kim, Rougin Khalil, Brigitte Decallonne, Dirk Vanderschueren, and Frank Claessens

context, the positive impact of testosterone stimulating physical activity and the underlying mechanisms of action represent an additional consideration for testosterone replacement in elderly, mobility-impaired, frail or sarcopenic men. Here, we review