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J A Tamblyn, M Hewison, C L Wagner, J N Bulmer, and M D Kilby

of vitamin D at the maternal–fetal interface. Illustration of both the innate and adaptive leukocyte decidual subsets with the potential capacity for intrinsic 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) synthesis from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD

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Daniela Leite de Oliveira, Camila Hirotsu, Sergio Tufik, and Monica Levy Andersen

Introduction The musculoskeletal benefits of vitamin D are widely known: they promote the calcification of bone matrix and increase the absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestine. Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children

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Rene F Chun, John S Adams, and Martin Hewison

Introduction At the end of 2007, Time magazine listed the ‘Benefits of Vitamin D’ as one of its top ten ‘medical breakthroughs’ of the year. The reason for this they stated has been the recent remarkable increase in studies documenting new actions

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Ankana Ganguly, Jennifer A Tamblyn, Sarah Finn-Sell, Shiao-Y Chan, Melissa Westwood, Janesh Gupta, Mark D Kilby, Stephane R Gross, and Martin Hewison

regulation of trophoblast invasion have been well documented ( Menkhorst et al . 2016 ). The aim of the current review is to provide an overview of these early events in placental development, with particular emphasis on the potential role of vitamin D as a

Open access

Nele Cielen, Nele Heulens, Karen Maes, Geert Carmeliet, Chantal Mathieu, Wim Janssens, and Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez

addition to smoking, physical inactivity, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation, other factors such as vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the large variability in the prevalence and severity of skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD ( Maltais et al

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Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse, and Caitlin S Wyrwoll

Introduction The quality of early life environment is a powerful determinant of adult health outcomes, including brain function ( Cottrell & Seckl 2009 ). The abundant expression of vitamin D receptors within the foetal brain ( Eyles et al

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E J Lock, R Ørnsrud, L Aksnes, F A T Spanings, R Waagbø, and G Flik

Introduction The vitamin D endocrine system in vertebrates is a major regulator of calcium and phosphate homeostasis ( Norman et al. 2002 ). Current research focuses on the two vitamin D metabolites 24 R ,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3

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Lauriane Bonnet, Esma Karkeni, Charlène Couturier, Julien Astier, Catherine Defoort, Ljubica Svilar, Franck Tourniaire, Lourdes Mounien, and Jean-François Landrier

Introduction Low levels of total circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) are strongly associated with obesity and more specially with increased fat mass and BMI ( Vilarrasa et al. 2007 , Earthman et al. 2012 , Landrier et al. 2016

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Folami Y Ideraabdullah, Anthony M Belenchia, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Seth W Kullman, Megan Knuth, Debabrata Mahapatra, Michael Bereman, Edward D Levin, and Catherine A Peterson

Introduction Vitamin D is obtained through various plant and animal dietary sources and can also be synthesized in the skin through sunlight exposure ( Fig. 1 ). All forms of vitamin D are metabolized in the liver via 25-hydroxylases to

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W Abbink, X M Hang, P M Guerreiro, F A T Spanings, H A Ross, A V M Canario, and G Flik

( Guerreiro et al. 2002 , Bevelander et al. 2006 ) and calcium regulation ( Guerreiro et al. 2001 , Abbink et al. 2004 , 2006 , Fuentes et al. 2006 ). Vitamin D is not synthesized by fish through photo-chemical processes in the skin and