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K L Franko, D A Giussani, A J Forhead and A L Fowden

of dexamethasone suppress pituitary adrenal function but augment the glycaemic response to acute hypoxia in fetal sheep during late gestation. Pediatric Research 47 684 –691. Forhead AJ , Poore KR, Mapstone J & Fowden

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Emmely M de Vries, Eric Fliers and Anita Boelen

. 2007 ). It was postulated that the increase in D3 in peripheral organs might be regulated by hypoxia due to decreased tissue perfusion during illness ( Peeters et al . 2003 ), and this assumption is supported by the observation that both D3 and hypoxia

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Alice S Green, Paul J Rozance and Sean W Limesand

insulin release ( Cheung 1990 , Milley 1997 , Jackson et al . 2000 ). In human fetuses, norepinephrine concentrations are also increased during hypoxia and are higher in IUGR fetuses ( Paulick et al . 1985 , Greenough et al . 1990 ). We have shown

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Laura D Brown

initiation complex. Under conditions of oxygen and energy restriction (depicted in pink), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1), and 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) decrease the rates of protein

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Colin P Sibley

). In pre-eclampsia, it is proposed that hypoxia and/or ischaemia-reperfusion lead to the release of free radicals and inflammatory mediators causing cellular stress in the syncytiotrophoblast (the placental epithelium) ( Powe et al . 2011 , Burton et

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Natasha N Chattergoon

evidence that fetal stressors, including poor nutrition and hypoxia, lead to detrimental changes in the heart and its blood vessels and elevated disease risk for life. The capacity of cardiomyocytes to proliferate over the life course has been

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Charlotte Lawson, Jose M Vicencio, Derek M Yellon and Sean M Davidson

contribute to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Here, the beneficial effect of mesenchymal stromal cells was shown to be mediated by the release of exosomes which suppressed hyperproliferative pathways including those mediated by STAT3 and the miR-17

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Siobhan M Donnelly, Bao Tran Nguyen, Scott Rhyne, Jordan Estes, Subrina Jesmin and Chishimba Nathan Mowa

signal transduction ( Ito et al . 1995 ). Other conditions that may induce expression of VEGF in the brain, which in turn induces cerebrovascular permeability, include hypoxia and ischemic brain injuries ( Van Bruggen et al . 1999 ). The exact role of

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Sonnet S Jonker, Daniel Kamna, Dan LoTurco, Jenai Kailey and Laura D Brown

expression of hypoxia-responsive genes . Journal of the American Heart Association 3 e000531 . ( ) 25085511 Botting KJ Loke XY Zhang S Andersen JB Nyengaard JR Morrison JL 2018 IUGR decreases cardiomyocyte

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Alpana Mathur, Vivek Kumar Pandey and Poonam Kakkar

nephropathy. Hypoxia (during carcinoma) is associated with decreased PHLPP expression ( Wen et al . 2013 ). It mediates HIF1α-dependent tumorigenesis in colon cancer cells. Studies are required to assess this mechanism during diabetic hypoxic conditions