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Firoozeh Salehzadeh, Anna Rune, Megan Osler, and Lubna Al-Khalili

), while testosterone replacement enhances lipid metabolism and decreases fat depots in men ( Zitzmann 2008 ). Estradiol hormone replacement in postmenopausal women exhibited positive changes on a wide range of metabolic parameters, including improved

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Virginia Fernández, Gladys Tapia, Patricia Varela, Iván Castillo, Catalina Mora, Francisco Moya, Myriam Orellana, and Luis A Videla

basal metabolic rate due to higher O 2 consumption by target tissues such as liver ( Fernández et al. 1985 ), leading to enhanced ROS generation ( Videla 2000 ). 3,3′,5-Triiodothyronine (T3)-induced pro-oxidant activity (i) occurs at mitochondrial

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Vivian Cristine Calegari, Claudio Cesar Zoppi, Luiz Fernando Rezende, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, and Antonio Carlos Boschero

and leptin sensitivity ( Flores et al . 2006 ) enhancing the AMPK/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, leading to lowered appetite and consequently nutrient intake ( Ropelle et al . 2008 ). In response to the observed systemic insulin sensitivity

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Helge Müller, Juliane Kröger, Olaf Jöhren, Silke Szymczak, Michael Bader, Peter Dominiak, and Walter Raasch

reactivity by enhancing the synthesis and secretion of CRH, ACTH, and glucocorticoids ( Rivier & Vale 1983 , Abou-Samra et al . 1986 , Schoenenberg et al . 1987 , Sumitomo et al . 1991 , Naville et al . 1993 , Jezova et al . 1998 ). This crosstalk

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E Houdeau, A Lévy, and S Mhaouty-Kodja

al. 1995 , Ou et al. 2000 ). Progesterone can also indirectly modulate the PLC signalling pathway by enhancing the expression of β-AR and their cognate Gsα protein ( Vivat et al. 1992 , Elwardy-Mérézak et al. 1994 ). It has been shown that

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C G Walker, M C Sugden, G F Gibbons, and M J Holness

the production of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the TAG backbone for fatty acid (FA) esterification. Glucose can also be used for the formation of FA de novo . Adipocyte glucose uptake and its conversion to glycerol-3-phosphate are also enhanced by the

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I Svechnikova, K Svechnikov, and O Söder

negligible, indicating that when 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) was blocked, this entire compound was converted further into DHEA by CYP17α. Treatment of immature female rats with DEHP enhances ex vivo secretion of LH by

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Sergio A Arispe, Betty Adams, and Thomas E Adams

production systems, because several common forages, including alfalfa, clover, lupin, and some grains, contain high concentrations of PEs ( Dixon 2004 ). In addition, the rumen and intestinal microbiota of domestic livestock species may enhance the estrogenic

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Sushil K Mahata, Hong Zheng, Sumana Mahata, Xuefei Liu, and Kaushik P Patel

Introduction Enhanced neurohumoral drive is a major risk factor that influences the progression of chronic heart failure (HF) and mortality in patients and the experimental models ( Packer 1988 , Zucker et al . 1995 , Patel 1997 ). During

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Qiongge Zhang, Chaoqun Wang, Yehua Tang, Qiangqiang Zhu, Yongcheng Li, Haiyan Chen, Yi Bao, Song Xue, Liangliang Sun, Wei Tang, Xiangfang Chen, Yongquan Shi, Lefeng Qu, Bin Lu, and Jiaoyang Zheng

the phosphorylation of FoxO1, facilitating nuclei gathering and enhancing the DNA-binding capacity in ECs ( Marchetti et al. 2006 , Behl et al. 2009 ). Additionally, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress could activate FoxO1 in ECs, increase the