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Xiaoli Wang, Fei Chang, Yinyang Bai, Fang Chen, Jun Zhang, and Ling Chen

kisspeptin ( Pinilla et al . 2012 ). The kisspeptin binding to GPR54 enhances the release of GNRH, presumably through a Ca 2+ -mediated process ( Strock & Diverse-Pierluissi 2004 , Stathatos et al . 2005 ). The GNRH antagonist acyline blocks the ability of

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Norio Masumoto, Chise Tateno, Asato Tachibana, Rie Utoh, Yoshio Morikawa, Takashi Shimada, Hiroyuki Momisako, Toshiyuki Itamoto, Toshimasa Asahara, and Katsutoshi Yoshizato

were transplanted into immunodeficient mice with diseased liver, albumin enhancer/promoter driven-urokinase plasminogen activator transgenic/severe combined immunodeficiency disease (uPA/SCID) mice. The transplanted cells were engrafted in the liver

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I Sekiya, P Koopman, K Tsuji, S Mertin, V Harley, Y Yamada, K Shinomiya, A Nifuji, and M Noda

SOX9 is a transcription factor that activates type II procollagen (Col2a1) gene expression during chondrocyte differentiation. Glucocorticoids are also known to promote chondrocyte differentiation via unknown molecular mechanisms. We therefore investigated the effects of a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), on Sox9 gene expression in chondrocytes prepared from rib cartilage of newborn mice. Sox9 mRNA was expressed at high levels in these chondrocytes. Treatment with DEX enhanced Sox9 mRNA expression within 24 h and this effect was observed at least up to 48 h. The effect of DEX was dose dependent, starting at 0.1 nM and maximal at 10 nM. The half life of Sox9 mRNA was approximately 45 min in the presence or absence of DEX. Western blot analysis revealed that DEX also enhanced the levels of SOX9 protein expression. Treatment with DEX enhanced Col2a1 mRNA expression in these chondrocytes and furthermore, DEX enhanced the activity of Col2-CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) construct containing a 1.6 kb intron fragment where chondrocyte-specific Sry/Sox- consensus sequence is located. The enhancing effect of DEX was specific to SOX9, as DEX did not alter the levels of Sox6 mRNA expression. These data suggest that DEX promotes chondrocyte differentiation through enhancement of SOX9.

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B Maiztegui, M I Borelli, M L Massa, H Del Zotto, and J J Gagliardino

cytosolic fraction, without changes in its transcription/expression levels. Thus, the increased β-cell secretory response of SRD islets at low glucose could be partly ascribed to an increase in HK activity, consecutive to an enhanced protein expression of

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Hong Guo-Parke, Jane T McCluskey, Catriona Kelly, Muhajir Hamid, Neville H McClenaghan, and Peter R Flatt

rodent pancreatic islets in both size and morphology ( Hauge-Evans et al . 1999 , Cavallari et al . 2007 , Kelly et al . 2010 a ) and displayed enhanced secretory properties compared with respective monolayer cells as a result of homotypic cellular

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Manon M Roustit, Joan M Vaughan, Pauline M Jamieson, and Mark E Cleasby

enhances glucose uptake into muscle during an IPGTT and increases cellular glucose transporter content Glucose uptake into mUCN3 expressing and paired control TC muscles were also assessed after 1 week. The IPGTTs carried out in these rats resulted in

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Marlise Guerrero Schimpf, María M Milesi, Enrique H Luque, and Jorgelina Varayoud

evidence are available about the capability of GBHs to promote uterine neoplasias. Based on controversial and limited studies, we evaluated whether exposure to low-dose GBH during early stage of development might enhance the sensitivity of the uterus to

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Sarah L Craig, Victor A Gault, Gerd Hamscher, and Nigel Irwin

clinically approved drugs ( Rosenstock et al. 2010 ). Taking into consideration that the primary pharmacological benefit of DPP-4 inhibition is enhancement of the incretin effect ( Gallwitz 2013 ), known to be severely perturbed in T2DM ( Nauck et al

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Monisha Rajasekaran, Ok-Joo Sul, Eun-Kyung Choi, Ji-Eun Kim, Jae-Hee Suh, and Hye-Seon Choi

macrophage polarization and increased energy expenditure by enhancing WAT browning and BAT activity. Materials and methods Reagents and antibodies Recombinant M-CSF mice were obtained from R&D Systems, Inc. BAY 11-7082 and JSH23 were obtained from

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H Takahashi, Y Kurose, S Kobayashi, T Sugino, M Kojima, K Kangawa, Y Hasegawa, and Y Terashima

(about 50 pg/100 μl) was distributed in all wells, and incubated for 3 h. After washing, 100 μl enhancement solution were added to each well, and fluorescence was measured by time-resolved fluorometer (Multilabel Counter, 1420 ALVO; Wallac Oy). Intra- and