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Hiranya Pintana, Wanpitak Pongkan, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn, and Siriporn C Chattipakorn

-insulin resistance, but also impaired brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive decline ( Pintana et al . 2012 , 2013 , Pipatpiboon et al . 2013 ). Testosterone is an androgenic steroid hormone, which plays an important role in the

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Sandra Pereira, Wen Qin Yu, María E Frigolet, Jacqueline L Beaudry, Yaniv Shpilberg, Edward Park, Cristina Dirlea, B L Grégoire Nyomba, Michael C Riddell, I George Fantus, and Adria Giacca

in hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance ( Cai et al . 2005 ). Hepatocyte-specific IKKB knockout (KO) mice show improved hepatic insulin sensitivity when challenged with high-fat feeding ( Arkan et al . 2005 ). Salicylates ameliorate glucose

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Elena Maneschi, Linda Vignozzi, Annamaria Morelli, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Ilaria Cellai, Paolo Comeglio, Erica Sarchielli, Alessandra Calcagno, Benedetta Mazzanti, Roberto Vettor, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Luciano Adorini, and Mario Maggi

high-carbohydrate diet, and develop peripheral insulin resistance ( Sinal et al . 2000 ). Three independent reports have linked FXR deficiency to impaired insulin sensitivity ( Cariou et al . 2006 , Ma et al . 2006 , Zhang et al . 2006 ). In

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Sun-O Ka, Mi-Young Song, Eun Ju Bae, and Byung-Hyun Park

and decreases insulin sensitivity ( Kanda et al . 2006 ). In contrast, genetic deletion of C-C chemokine ligand 2 ( Ccl2 )/ Mcp1 or its receptor, C-C chemokine receptor 2 ( Ccr2 ), protects mice from high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced inflammation and

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Simon Klebanov, Clinton M Astle, Olga DeSimone, Vitaly Ablamunits, and David E Harrison

procedure itself did not have any long-lasting effect on insulin levels. To confirm that insulin sensitivity was improved in WAT-transplanted mice, we performed insulin tolerance tests, 4 weeks after WAT transplantation, on a separate group of 14

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Andréa M Caricilli, Paula H Nascimento, José R Pauli, Daniela M L Tsukumo, Lício A Velloso, José B Carvalheira, and Mário J A Saad

( Perreault & Marette 2001 , Yuan et al . 2001 , Hirosumi et al . 2002 , Lee et al . 2003 , Carvalho-Filho et al . 2005 ) pathways is related to the reduction in insulin sensitivity, but it has only recently been shown that these pathways may be

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Yanbin Zheng, Wenshuo Zhang, Elisha Pendleton, Sanhua Leng, Jiong Wu, Ridong Chen, and Xiao Jian Sun

plasma dyslipidemia, and reduce oxidative stress, leading to improved insulin sensitivity ( Ugochukwu & Figgers 2007 ). The underlying molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are not very clear. It has been observed that an elevation in the ratio of

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Nigel Irwin, Pamela Frizelle, Finbarr P M O'Harte, and Peter R Flatt

conditions is of value. This study indicates that (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 exerts beneficial effects on body weight regulation and insulin sensitivity with no obvious signs of malaise or harmful effects on behavior. Materials and methods Peptides synthesis (pGlu

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NJ Lewis-Barned, WH Sutherland, RJ Walker, SA de Jong, HL Walker, EA Edwards, V Markham, and A Goulding

This study was designed to determine the effect of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acid (CEFA) composition and insulin sensitivity and the relationships between these variables in perimenopausal women (aged 40-55 years) including 49 who were premenopausal and 32 who were postmenopausal. Plasma cholesteryl ester proportions of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3 n-6) were correlated significantly with insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.319, P=0.005), fasting serum insulin levels (r=0.230, P=0.038), body mass index (r=0.242, P=0.03) and per cent body fat (r=0.329, P=0.003) in perimenopausal women (n=81). Similar associations were observed in premenopausal women. Regression analysis suggested the relationships between 20:3 n-6 proportions and indices of insulin action may be partly mediated by levels of adiposity. In postmenopausal women, 6 months of HRT significantly (P=0.008) increased the ratio of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) to linoleic acid (18:2 n-6), which is an indicator of activity in the pathway of 20:4 n-6 synthesis, compared with placebo. These findings suggest that the type of fat in the diet indicated by plasma CEFA composition is linked to adiposity and insulin action. They also suggest that in postmenopausal women, HRT may increase the synthesis of 20:4 n-6, which is the precursor for eicosanoids with important cardiovascular functions.

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Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Chadi Pellegrini Anaruma, Marcella Ramos Sant’Ana, Thaís Dantis Pereira de Campos, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Raphael dos Santos Canciglieri, Diego Gomes de Melo, Rania A Mekary, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, and Leandro Pereira de Moura

insulin sensitivity The ipPTT was carried out 8 h after the last strength session for HGP control evaluation. Initially, we observed that the glycemic values of OB group were higher than CTL group at all times of the test ( Fig. 4A ). Moreover, obese