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Linda Ahlkvist, Bilal Omar, Anders Valeur, Keld Fosgerau, and Bo Ahrén

Introduction Islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes is bi-hormonal involving both defective insulin secretion and augmented glucagon secretion ( Unger & Orci 1975 ), the latter resulting in chronic elevation of circulating glucagon levels ( Larsson

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L van Bloemendaal, J S ten Kulve, S E la Fleur, R G Ijzerman, and M Diamant

), oxyntomodulin (OXM) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), have been identified as players in the regulation of feeding by relaying meal-related information on nutritional status to the brain. Based on more than three decades of experimental evidence from rodent

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Shou-Si Lu, Yun-Li Yu, Hao-Jie Zhu, Xiao-Dong Liu, Li Liu, Yao-Wu Liu, Ping Wang, Lin Xie, and Guang-Ji Wang

play is an important role in the regulation of endocrine pancreatic secretion. The intestinal products of the proglucagon gene, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has been shown to contribute significantly to the overall insulin response to oral glucose

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Antonella Amato, Sara Baldassano, Rosa Liotta, Rosa Serio, and Flavia Mulè

Introduction Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), produced by intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells in response to the ingestion of nutrients ( Schirra et al . 1996 ), is highly insulinotropic and an inhibitor of gastrointestinal motility, effects that

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Sara Baldassano, Anna Lisa Bellanca, Rosa Serio, and Flavia Mulè

Introduction Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) is a 33-amino acid peptide, produced by the processing of the proglucagon gene within the mucosal L-cells of the intestine and specific neurons located in the brainstem. The actions of GLP2 are transduced

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Li Wang, Yufeng Zhao, Baosong Gui, Rongguo Fu, Feng Ma, Jun Yu, Ping Qu, Lei Dong, and Chen Chen

insulin resistance, causing an increase in blood glucose level ( Weir & Bonner-Weir 2004 , Prentki & Nolan 2006 , Wajchenberg 2007 ). The islet α-cell also regulates blood glucose level by secreting glucagon, which activates gluconeogenesis to increase

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Sara Baldassano, Antonella Amato, Francesco Cappello, Francesca Rappa, and Flavia Mulè

, including the proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), and GLP2, and there is evidence for a link among GLP2, intestinal growth, and increased energy intake ( Xiao et al . 1999 , Shin et al . 2005 , Nelson et al . 2008 ). GLP2 is a

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Guillaume Mabilleau, Marie Pereira, and Chantal Chenu

needed, to reach an HbA 1C level of 7% or less. Among the most prescribed drugs, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have recently attracted attention as Glp-1r -knockout animals, and GLP-1-supplemented animals exhibited

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Jennifer A Crookshank, Daniel Serrano, Gen-Sheng Wang, Christopher Patrick, Baylie S Morgan, Marie-France Paré, and Fraser W Scott

proteins were used: insulin (Agilent Technologies Canada Inc., Mississauga, Canada), proinsulin (Bio-Techne, Minneapolis, USA), glucagon (MilliporeSigma), BIP (Abcam Inc.). ImageJ (National Institute of Health) was used to quantify the insulin + and

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Guillaume Mabilleau, Aleksandra Mieczkowska, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt, and Daniel Chappard

al . 2010 ). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) is a gut hormone synthesized and secreted into the blood stream by intestinal endocrine L cells in response to a variety of stimuli ( Wu et al . 2010 ). Biologically active GLP1 is secreted as a 7–37 or 7