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K Eerola, P Rinne, A M Penttinen, L Vähätalo, M Savontaus, and E Savontaus

cerebroventricular system produces hypertensive effects, most studies report that α-MSH administration into the NTS decreases blood pressure and heart rate (HR) through a reduced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity ( Li et al . 1996 , Pavia et al . 2003

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Abdoulaye Diané, Nikolina Nikolic, Alexander P Rudecki, Shannon M King, Drew J Bowie, and Sarah L Gray

-specific inner mitochondrial membrane protein UCP1. BAT is highly vascularized and richly innervated by postganglionic nerve terminals of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS; Baron et al . 2012 , Vaughan et al . 2014 ). Thermoregulatory pathways are induced

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K Eerola, S Virtanen, L Vähätalo, L Ailanen, M Cai, V Hruby, M Savontaus, and E Savontaus

be higher in the late stages of the period. Therefore, changes in energy expenditure or nutrient partitioning must be responsible for augmented fat mass loss. SNS-driven BAT thermogenesis analyzed as Ucp1 mRNA and SNS activity in adrenal gland

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Hye-Jin Lee, Haifei Shi, Hella S Brönneke, Bo-Yeong Jin, Sang-Hyun Choi, Randy J Seeley, and Dong-Hoon Kim

the AT by a dynamic balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction in response to microenvironmental changes ( Karpe et al. 2002 , Ardilouze et al. 2004 , Alemany 2012 ). The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that innervates the AT is a major

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Cathy A Guo and Shaodong Guo

dysfunction in humans. Crosstalk between insulin signaling and β-adrenergic receptor signaling via IRS Increased catecholamine release, including epinephrine and norepinephrine, stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and promotes heart failure

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Rosiane A Miranda, Rosana Torrezan, Júlio C de Oliveira, Luiz F Barella, Claudinéia C da Silva Franco, Patrícia C Lisboa, Egberto G Moura, and Paulo C F Mathias

crucial to increase plasma insulin. Pancreatic β-cells receive many neural terminals, including the autonomic nervous system (ANS) with their parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) branches, which release acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenaline (NA

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Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Audrei Pavanello, Laize Peron Tófolo, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Kelly Valério Prates, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Rosana Torrezan, Erica Yeo, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, and Ananda Malta

sympathetic nerves system (SNS), respectively have the ability to potentiate and/or inhibit insulin secretion through the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) and adrenoreceptors, present on the β -cell surface ( Gautam et al. 2006 ). In

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Z Zhang, P H Bisschop, E Foppen, H C van Beeren, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen, and E Fliers

BAT through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) depends on T 3 -mediated activation of de novo lipogenesis in the hypothalamic VMH ( Lopez et al . 2010 ), establishing a role for T 3 in the VMH in the regulation of BAT. Together, these studies

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John-Paul Fuller-Jackson and Belinda A Henry

perceived by the brain, leading to activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the induction of thermogenesis ( Lowell & Spiegelman 2000 , Cannon & Nedergaard 2004 ). Noradrenaline is released within BAT and activates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1

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Bernard Beck and Sébastien Richy

obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial . Annals of Internal Medicine 140 778 – 785 . Strack A Akana S Horsley C Dallman M 1997 A hypercaloric load induces thermogenesis but inhibits stress responses in the SNS and HPA system