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Patricia Vázquez, Isabel Roncero, Enrique Blázquez, and Elvira Alvarez

facilitate the action of these proteins involved in the signalling process ( Pawson & Scott 1997 ). The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor subfamily ( Dillon et al. 1993 , Thorens 1993 , Thorens

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Patrice D Cani, Catherine A Daubioul, Brigitte Reusens, Claude Remacle, Grégory Catillon, and Nathalie M Delzenne

( Reimer & McBurney 1996 , Cani et al. 2004 ). In the intestine, the post-translational modification of the proglucagon gene by prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) leads to the production of glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide (GLP-1(7–36) amide) which, among

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Hongbin Liu, Anthony E Dear, Lotte B Knudsen, and Richard W Simpson

protected from the development of biochemical abnormalities associated with endothelial cell dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis ( Eitzman et al . 2000 , Mao et al . 2004 ). Liraglutide, an acylated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, has

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Bernard Khoo and Tricia Mei-Mei Tan

regain ( King et al. 2019 ). As a result, there is still an unmet need for other approaches to the treatment of obesity and associated T2D. The gut hormones, led by GLP-1, have emerged over the past few years as a potential answer to this need. This

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Catia Martins, Linda M Morgan, Stephen R Bloom, and M Denise Robertson

), peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) ( Blundell 1991 , King et al. 1997 b ). These metabolic and endocrine signals are then received and processed by specific areas in the hypothalamus and brainstem

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Hong Lan, Galya Vassileva, Aaron Corona, Li Liu, Hana Baker, Andrei Golovko, Susan J Abbondanzo, Weiwen Hu, Shijun Yang, Yun Ning, Robert A Del Vecchio, Frederique Poulet, Maureen Laverty, Eric L Gustafson, Joseph A Hedrick, and Timothy J Kowalski

fall into two major categories: drugs that improve insulin sensitivity, and those that increase insulin secretion from β-cells. Agents that enhance insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics (e

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Shin-ya Ueda, Takahiro Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro Katsura, Tatsuya Usui, Hayato Nakao, and Shigeo Fujimoto

endocrine organs, including ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), and oxyntomodulin ( Huda et al . 2006 , Näslund & Hellstrom 2007 , Wren & Bloom 2007 ). While of these, ghrelin is

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Sara Baldassano, Anna Lisa Bellanca, Rosa Serio, and Flavia Mulè

.w.), GLP1 (0.30 μg/g b.w.), GLP2 (3–33) (0.90 μg/g b.w.), exendin (9–39) (0.20 μg/g b.w.), or GLP2 (0.90 μg/g b.w.) in the early light phase (0800–0900 h). Prior to the initial study, mice received a daily i.p. injection of 100 μl PBS for 7 days to

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Sehee Kim, Minho Moon, and Seungjoon Park

pharmacological intervention of MMP-3 and microglial activation could be considered as plausible candidates for neuroprotective agents in PD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an endogenous 30-amino acid gut–brain peptide hormone, is synthesized from proglucagon

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Mohamed Lotfy, Jaipaul Singh, Hameed Rashed, Saeed Tariq, Erika Zilahi, and Ernest Adeghate

endocrine and an exocrine system with much interaction between the two parts ( Shetzline & Liddle 2002 ). The GI tract secretes a number of hormones including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1; Drucker 2003 b