the novel human GLP-1 analog liraglutide for 28 days. Materials and Methods Animals All experiments were conducted in accordance with internationally accepted principles for the care and use of laboratory animals, and were approved by the Danish
Andreas Nygaard Madsen, Gitte Hansen, Sarah Juel Paulsen, Kirsten Lykkegaard, Mads Tang-Christensen, Harald S Hansen, Barry E Levin, Philip Just Larsen, Lotte Bjerre Knudsen, Keld Fosgerau, and Niels Vrang
Petra Kaválková, Miloš Mráz, Pavel Trachta, Jana Kloučková, Anna Cinkajzlová, Zdeňka Lacinová, Denisa Haluzíková, Marek Beneš, Zuzana Vlasáková, Václav Burda, Daniel Novák, Tomáš Petr, Libor Vítek, Terezie Pelikánová, and Martin Haluzík
laboratory methods, and LDL cholesterol was calculated in the Department of Biochemistry of the General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. Plasma active GLP1, GIP, leptin and insulin were measured by commercial multiplex assay (Human Metabolic
L B Hays, B Wicksteed, Y Wang, J F McCuaig, L H Philipson, J M Edwardson, and C J Rhodes
secretory activity by radioimmunoassay in both static and perifusion incubation experiments as described previously at either basal (2.8 mM) or stimulatory (16.7 mM) glucose ( ± 10 nM GLP-1 or 5μM glyburide as indicated) ( Donelan et al. 2002
S Saifia, AM Chevrier, A Bosshard, JC Cuber, JA Chayvialle, and J Abello
The neuropeptide galanin is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and exerts several inhibitory effects, especially on intestinal motility and on insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells. The presence of galanin fibres not only in the myenteric and submucosal plexus but also in the mucosa, prompted us to investigate the regulatory role of galanin, and its mechanism of action, on the secretion of the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Rat ileal cells were dispersed through mechanical vibration followed by moderate exposure to hyaluronidase, DNase I and EDTA, and enriched for L-cells by counterflow elutriation. A 6- to 7-fold enrichment in GLP-1 cell content was registered after elutriation, as compared with the crude cell preparation (929 +/- 81 vs 138 +/- 14 fmol/10(6) cells). L-cells then accounted for 4-5% of the total cell population. Bombesin induced a time-(15-240 min) and dose- (0.1 nM-1 microM) dependent release of GLP-1. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, 100 nM), forskolin (10 microM) and the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 1 microM) each stimulated GLP-1 secretion over a 1-h incubation period. Galanin (0.01-100 nM) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of bombesin- and of GIP-stimulated GLP-1 release (mean inhibition of 90% with 100 nM galanin). Galanin also dose-dependently inhibited forskolin-induced GLP-1 secretion (74% of inhibition with 100 nM galanin), but not TPA-stimulated hormone release. Pretreatment of cells with 200 ng/ml pertussis toxin for 3 h, or incubation with the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker disopyramide (200 microM), prevented the inhibition by galanin of bombesin- and GIP-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. These studies indicate that intestinal secretion of GLP-1 is negatively controlled by galanin, that acts through receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and involves ATP-dependent K+ channels.
CF Deacon, S Wamberg, P Bie, TE Hughes, and JJ Holst
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), thereby losing insulinotropic activity. DPP IV inhibition reduces exogenous GLP-1 degradation, but the extent of endogenous incretin protection has not been fully assessed, largely because suitable assays which distinguish between intact and degraded peptides have been unavailable. Using newly developed assays for intact GLP-1 and GIP, the effect of DPP IV inhibition on incretin hormone metabolism was examined. Conscious dogs were given NVP-DPP728, a specific DPP IV inhibitor, at a dose that inhibited over 90% of plasma DPP IV for the first 90 min following treatment. Total and intact incretin concentrations increased (P<0.0001) following a mixed meal, but on control days (vehicle infusion), intact peptide concentrations were lower (P<0.01) than total peptide concentrations (22.6 +/- 1.2% intact GIP; 10.1 +/- 0.4% intact GLP-1). Following inhibitor treatment, the proportion of intact peptide increased (92.5 +/- 4.3% intact GIP, P<0.0001; 99.0 +/- 22.6% intact GLP-1, P<0.02). Active (intact) incretins increased after NVP-DPP728 (from 4797 +/- 364 to 10 649 +/- 106 pM x min for GIP, P<0.03; from 646 +/- 134 to 2822 +/- 528 pM x m in for GLP-1, P<0.05). In contrast, total incretins fell (from 21 632 +/- 654 to 12 084 +/- 1723 pM x min for GIP, P<0.002; from 5145 +/- 677 to 3060 +/- 601 pM x min for GLP-1, P<0.05). Plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations were unaltered by the inhibitor. We have concluded that DPP IV inhibition with NVP-DPP728 prevents N-terminal degradation of endogenous incretins in vivo, resulting in increased plasma concentrations of intact, biologically active GIP and GLP-1. Total incretin secretion was reduced by DPP IV inhibition, suggesting the possibility of a feedback mechanism.
Peixin Li, Zhijian Rao, Brenton Thomas Laing, Wyatt Bunner, Taylor Landry, Amber Prete, Yuan Yuan, Zhong-Tao Zhang, and Hu Huang
play a direct role after VSG. Furthermore, recent clinical studies in humans have shown that improved glucose homeostasis and even diabetes remission may be related to increased nutrient-stimulated glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY (PYY
Barbara C Fam, Rebecca Sgambellone, Zheng Ruan, Joseph Proietto, and Sofianos Andrikopoulos
-like peptide 1 ( Glp1 ) mRNA in gut ileum. Glp1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in DIO mice as compared to both DR and chow-fed mice ( Fig. 6 A), whereas DR mice had the same expression level as chow-fed mice. When GPR gene levels were assessed, DIO
Astrid C Hauge-Evans, James Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Zoheb Hassan, and Peter M Jones
available kits (Insulin: Millipore Ltd, Watford, UK; glucagon: Mercodia, Uppsala, Sweden; SST and GLP1: USCN Life Science, Inc., Wuhan, China; catecholamine: Bioassay Technology Laboratory, Shanghai, China). Islet hormone concentrations in the incubation
J Claustre, S Brechet, P Plaisancie, JA Chayvialle, and JC Cuber
Postprandial release of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from L cells results from both nutrient transit in the ileal lumen and neural drive of endocrine cells. The adrenosympathetic system and its effectors have been shown to induce secretion of L cells in vivo or in vitro. Because these transmitters act through three receptors, beta, alpha1, alpha2, coupled to different intracellular pathways, we evaluated the responses of L cells to specific agonists, using the model of isolated vascularly perfused rat ileum. General stimulation of adrenergic receptors with epinephrine (10(-7) M) induced significant GLP-1 and PYY secretions (94+/-38 and 257+/-59 fmol/8 min respectively) which were abolished upon propranolol (10(-7) M) pretreatment and strongly decreased upon infusion with 10(-8) M prazosin. Blockade of alpha2-receptors with idazoxan (10(-8) M) did not alter epinephrine-induced peptide secretion. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (10(-6) M) infused for 30 min induced a transient release of GLP-1 and PYY (integrated release over the 8 min of the peak secretion: 38+/-16 and 214+/-69 fmol for GLP-1 and PYY respectively, P<0.05). Because terbutaline but not dobutamine or BRL 37,344 (10(-5) M) induced significant GLP-1 and PYY secretions (135+/-30 and 305+/-39 fmol/8 min respectively), isoproterenol-induced secretions are suggested to result mainly from stimulation of the beta2-isoreceptor type. In contrast, the alpha1-agonist phenylephrine (10(-7) M) did not stimulate peptide release. When co-infused with 10(-6) M or 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M phenylephrine raised GLP-1 release to 174+/-53 and 108+/-28 fmol/8 min respectively (vs 38+/-16 and 35+/-10 fmol/8 min for isoproterenol alone, P<0.05) whereas PYY secretion was not significantly increased. Clonidine (10(-7) M), an alpha2-agonist, induced a moderate and delayed increase of GLP-1 and PYY but abolished the isoproterenol-induced peptide secretion. Our results showed that general stimulation of adrenergic receptors stimulates the secretory activity of ileal endocrine L cells. The net peptide secretion results from the activation of the beta2-isoreceptor type. Additionally, GLP-1 and PYY secretions are positively modulated by alpha1-receptor stimulation and inhibited by alpha2-receptor activation upon beta-receptor occupation.
EG Siegel, A Seidenstucker, B Gallwitz, F Schmitz, A Reinecke-Luthge, G Kloppel, UR Folsch, and WE Schmidt
Liver cirrhosis is often accompanied by a disturbed carbohydrate metabolism similar to type 2 diabetes. To investigate the severity of the defect in insulin secretion in this form of diabetes, we measured insulin release from isolated pancreatic islets of rats with CCl(4)-phenobarbital-induced liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was confirmed by clinical signs, elevated liver enzymes and histology. Fasting venous plasma glucose concentrations were equal in rats with liver cirrhosis and in controls. Plasma insulin and glucagon concentrations were significantly greater (P<0.01) in cirrhotic rats than in control animals. Glucose (16.7 mM)-induced stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets revealed a twofold increase in control and cirrhotic rats. Basal and stimulated insulin secretion, however, were significantly lower in cirrhotic animals. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, islets from control and cirrhotic animals were incubated with GLP-1 in concentrations from 10(-)(11) to 10(-)(6) M. GLP-1 stimulated insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner. In islets from cirrhotic rats, basal and stimulated insulin secretion was blunted compared with controls. These data show that the hyperinsulinemia observed in liver cirrhosis is not due to an increase of insulin secretion from islets, but could be explained by decreased hepatic clearance of insulin. GLP-1 may ameliorate diabetes in patients with liver cirrhosis.