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Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Paul-Emile Poleni, Kazuya Hasegawa, and Yukari Date

( Bjorbaek & Kahn 2004 ). Leptin also inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in the arcuate nucleus and in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus ( Minokoshi et al . 2004 ). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), a gastrointestinal hormone

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Shin-ya Ueda, Takahiro Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro Katsura, Tatsuya Usui, Hayato Nakao, and Shigeo Fujimoto

endocrine organs, including ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), and oxyntomodulin ( Huda et al . 2006 , Näslund & Hellstrom 2007 , Wren & Bloom 2007 ). While of these, ghrelin is

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Paige V Bauer and Frank A Duca

. 2015 , Buse et al . 2016 ). Interestingly, this is not the only evidence for a therapeutic role of the gut in diabetes treatment. Over the past decade, incretin-based therapies including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl

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Lars P Klieverik, Ewout Foppen, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Mireille J Serlie, Hans P Sauerwein, Thomas S Scanlan, David K Grandy, Eric Fliers, and Andries Kalsbeek

.c.v. bolus infusion, isotope dilution and blood sampling were conducted to permit measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP), and the concentration of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, corticosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T 3 and T 4

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Joshua A Kulas, Kendra L Puig, and Colin K Combs

chemiluminescent visualization. Antibodies Antibodies against full-length APP (ab32136), BACE2 (ab8025), glucagon (ab10988), IDE (ab32216) and the insulin receptor (ab69508) were purchased from Abcam. Antibodies against insulin (L6B10), p-GSK3β (D3A4), GSK3

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Sandra Fontanière, Bertrand Duvillié, Raphaël Scharfmann, Christine Carreira, Zhao-Qi Wang, and Chang-Xian Zhang

experiments were guinea pig anti-insulin (1:500, Dako, Capintaria, CA, USA), rabbit anti-glucagon (1:600, NovoCastra, Milton Keynes, UK), anti-mucin-1 (1:200, Neomarkers, Fremont, CA, USA) and goat anti-menin (C19, 1:500). For cultured pancreatic rudiments, 4

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Li Ding, Yue Yin, Lingling Han, Yin Li, Jing Zhao, and Weizhen Zhang

Introduction Pancreatic islet contains four major types of endocrine cells, including α, β, δ and PP cells, which secret glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively. All types of pancreatic endocrine cells arise

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Birgitte N Friedrichsen, Nicole Neubauer, Ying C Lee, Vivian K Gram, Niels Blume, Jacob S Petersen, Jens H Nielsen, and Annette Møldrup

Introduction The intestinal incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released in response to fat and carbohydrate ingestion. Both peptides act to augment

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Neil Tanday, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin, and R Charlotte Moffett

incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), in T2DM have been linked to direct positive effects at the level of the endocrine pancreas. This includes, but not limited to, potentiation of glucose

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Mohamed Lotfy, Jaipaul Singh, Hameed Rashed, Saeed Tariq, Erika Zilahi, and Ernest Adeghate

endocrine and an exocrine system with much interaction between the two parts ( Shetzline & Liddle 2002 ). The GI tract secretes a number of hormones including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1; Drucker 2003 b