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Taira Wada, Yukiko Yamamoto, Yukiko Takasugi, Hirotake Ishii, Taketo Uchiyama, Kaori Saitoh, Masahiro Suzuki, Makoto Uchiyama, Hikari Yoshitane, Yoshitaka Fukada, and Shigeki Shimba

rhythms ( Kohsaka et al. 2007 ). The levels of several hormones and cytokines show a circadian rhythm ( Andrews & Folk 1964 , Barter et al. 1971 , Vaughan et al. 1976 , Kaneko et al. 1980 , Arvidson et al. 1994 , Sinha et al. 1996

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Anjara Rabearivony, Huan Li, Shiyao Zhang, Siyu Chen, Xiaofei An, and Chang Liu

timing signals for living organisms on Earth. Consequently, according to these signals, the endogenous circadian rhythms within organisms are entrained to the solar day ( Pittendrich 1960 , Refinetti 2010 , Fonken et al. 2013 ). While the central

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Silvia Begliuomini, Elena Lenzi, Filippo Ninni, Elena Casarosa, Sara Merlini, Nicola Pluchino, Valeria Valentino, Stefano Luisi, Michele Luisi, and Andrea R Genazzani

there are no studies at present in the literature investigating a possible BDNF circadian rhythm in humans, we studied the BDNF levels throughout 24 h in healthy men, in order to detect the possible relative changes in plasma BDNF protein. Additionally

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Marianna Minnetti, Valeria Hasenmajer, Riccardo Pofi, Mary Anna Venneri, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, and Andrea M Isidori

adrenal hormones play a pivotal role in mitigating or enhancing the effects of clock genes on their own targets. The exact role of glucocorticoids in this context has yet to be fully elucidated. However, it is generally accepted that their circadian rhythm

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Isis Gabrielli Barbieri de Oliveira, Marcos Divino Ferreira Junior, Paulo Ricardo Lopes, Dhiogenes Balsanufo Taveira Campos, Marcos Luiz Ferreira-Neto, Eduardo Henrique Rosa Santos, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Bruna Del Vechio Koike, Carlos Henrique de Castro, André Henrique Freiria-Oliveira, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, and Daniel Alves Rosa

relate to increased adiposity and the development of other parameters of metabolic syndrome ( Báez-Ruiz et al. 2017 ). Although many evidence suggests that the desynchronization of circadian rhythm increases the risk of cardiometabolic disorders

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Muneki Ikeda, Yasushi Hojo, Yoshimasa Komatsuzaki, Masahiro Okamoto, Asami Kato, Taishi Takeda, and Suguru Kawato

), the CORT level changes in both the plasma and brain along the circadian rhythm ( Migeon et al . 1956 , Moore & Eichler 1972 , Qian et al . 2012 ). Qian et al . showed the high synchronicity of CORT oscillation between the blood and hippocampus by

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J Fahrenkrug, B Georg, J Hannibal, and H L Jørgensen

thyroid hormones compared to control rats, and based on the mean concentrations, it amounted to 7.7-fold for T4, 23-fold for free T4 and two-fold for T3, respectively ( Fig. 4D, E and F ). Furthermore, daily circadian rhythms in the thyroid hormones

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Shannon M Bailey, Uduak S Udoh, and Martin E Young

) showed that insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic rat islets display a circadian rhythm that originates within the islet. Further, plasma insulin concentrations in rats exhibit daily oscillations with distinct increments at every meal ( Kalsbeek

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Anthony H Tsang, Mariana Astiz, Maureen Friedrichs, and Henrik Oster

physiological target systems according to the time of day. It has long been appreciated that many hormones show circadian rhythms in the circulation ( Pincus et al . 1954 , Moore & Eichler 1972 ). Both central and peripheral tissue clocks impinge on such

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Sarika Paul and Timothy M Brown

function ( Takahashi 2015 ). In the case of the SCN, these clock controlled genes include membrane ion channels, thereby generating pronounced circadian rhythms in the excitability and spontaneous electrical activity of SCN neurons ( Belle & Allen 2018