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Kazunari Nohara, Suhuan Liu, Matthew S Meyers, Aurélie Waget, Mathieu Ferron, Gérard Karsenty, Rémy Burcelin and Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

precocial species that give birth to mature young. In both groups, synaptogenesis of hypothalamic centers that control energy homeostasis and adipose tissue development occurs during the second trimester of pregnancy ( Ailhaud et al . 1992 , Koutcherov et

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J D Bailey, J G Berardinelli, T E Rocke and R A Bessen

energy homeostasis, in general, is subject to prion-induced alteration. We hypothesized, as have others ( Ye et al . 1994 a , b , 1997 ), that there are two potential explanations for prion-induced alteration in energy homeostasis: one that involves

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Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Lorraine Jaimes-Hoy and Jean-Louis Charli

important player in energy homeostasis ( Hollenberg 2008 , Fliers et al . 2014 , McAninch & Bianco 2014 , Mullur et al . 2014 ). The activity of the HPT axis is stringently regulated by neuronal stimuli impinging on TRH neurons and by the negative

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Karla J Suchacki, Fiona Roberts, Andrea Lovdel, Colin Farquharson, Nik M Morton, Vicky E MacRae and William P Cawthorn

organ with possible roles in the hormonal modulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Osteocalcin Also known as BGP (bone Gla protein), osteocalcin (OCN) is the most abundant osteoblast-specific non-collagenous protein. OCN is initially synthesised

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V Ott, M Fasshauer, A Dalski, HH Klein and J Klein

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plays an important role in regulating neuronal growth. Recently, central anorexigenic effects of this cytokine have been characterized. However, peripheral effects on tissues that actively contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis have not been described. Here, we report direct potent and selective effects of CNTF on growth factor and metabolic signalling intermediates in mouse brown adipocytes. CNTF stimulates STAT3, MAP kinase, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase. We find that, next to mediating Akt and p70 S6 kinase activation, both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C are separately acting, main intermediates for inducing mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. On a functional level, CNTF enhances beta3-adrenergic induction of uncoupling protein-1. Thus, these results demonstrate direct effects of CNTF on adipose tissue signalling and metabolism and suggest a novel role for this cytokine in the peripheral regulation of energy homeostasis.

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Michael Rosenbaum and Rudolph L Leibel

of their effects in the hypothalamus, thus energizing speculation as to the nature of these metabolic markers of energy stores. Mayer (1955) proposed that energy homeostasis and body energy stores were largely regulated by the interactions of

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Filipe de Vadder and Gilles Mithieux

Introduction The worldwide increase in obesity and associated illnesses such as type 2 diabetes has urged the scientific community to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis. A well-documented area relates to

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Libor Vítek and Martin Haluzík

-phosphate receptor 2; TGR5, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor; VDR, vitamin D receptor. a Only targets, organs and tissues believed to affect energy homeostasis are described. FXR, in addition to its essential role in cholesterol/BA metabolism, also

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Riccardo Dore, Luka Levata, Hendrik Lehnert and Carla Schulz

role of nesfatin-1 not only in the regulation of food intake but also in other physiological functions. With this review, we aim at summarizing the current knowledge in the field with a particular focus on energy homeostasis. Furthermore, we provide

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C E Koch, M S Bartlang, J T Kiehn, L Lucke, N Naujokat, C Helfrich-Förster, S O Reber and H Oster

& Loose 1977 , Cavigelli et al . 2005 , Campbell et al . 2011 , Lee et al . 2014 ). Moreover, circadian clocks in adipose tissue respond to GC treatment ( Shostak et al . 2013 a ) and have been shown to affect food intake and energy homeostasis via