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Jennifer H Stern, Gordon I Smith, Shiuwei Chen, Roger H Unger, Samuel Klein, and Philipp E Scherer

either glucagon or insulin alone ( Glinsmann & Mortimore 1968 , Mackrell & Sokal 1969 ). Normally, the glucagon:insulin ratio increases during fasting, leading to a predominant glucagon signal, which increases hepatic intracellular concentrations of the

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Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes de Souza, Lorraine Soares Oliveira, Larissa Costa Faustino, Letícia Aragão Santiago, Flavia Fonseca Bloise, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida, and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura

. 2008 ). These punctual contributions are extremely valuable to understand the essential role of SIRT1 in adaptation to calorie restriction and fasting, conditions that are able to trigger SIRT1 protein expression in various tissues ( Cohen et al . 2004

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Eva B Nygaard, Cathrine Ørskov, Thomas Almdal, Henrik Vestergaard, and Birgitte Andersen

diabetes and obesity as reviewed in ( Kharitonenkov & Adams 2014 , Sonoda et al . 2017 ). However, the physiological role of FGF21 is still not fully understood. In mice, plasma FGF21 has been found to be increased in response to fasting ( Inagaki et

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F Aréchiga-Ceballos, E Alvarez-Salas, G Matamoros-Trejo, M I Amaya, C García-Luna, and P de Gortari

pro-corticotropin-releasing factor (proCRF), which regulate the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axes. This responsiveness was assessed after the known 48 h fasting-induced shift in leptin and corticosterone

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Anna H Kongsted, Sanne V Husted, Malin P Thygesen, Vibeke G Christensen, Dominique Blache, Anders Tolver, Torben Larsen, Bjørn Quistorff, and Mette O Nielsen

-gestation undernutrition on metabolic and endocrine plasticity can be assessed relatively early in life (adolescence) by exposure to challenges reflecting stressful conditions (adrenalin tolerance test) with scarcity of feed (fasting) requiring hepatic gluconeogenesis

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N Govoni, R De Iasio, C Cocco, A Parmeggiani, G Galeati, U Pagotto, C Brancia, M Spinaci, C Tamanini, R Pasquali, G-L Ferri, and E Seren

of oxyntic glands in various farm animals, and abundant in cardiac and pyloric glands in swine ( Hayashida et al. 2001 ). Circulating ghrelin levels depend on acute and chronic changes in energy balance, fasting increasing and feeding decreasing its

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Tiffany K Miles, Ana Rita Silva Moreira, Melody L Allensworth-James, Angela K Odle, Anessa C Haney, Angus M MacNicol, Melanie C MacNicol, and Gwen V Childs

prolonged fasting, can result in stunted growth in children under 5, anemia in women of reproductive age and adults who are underweight ( Fanzo et al. 2018 ). Leptin and ghrelin are two major metabolic signals of energy homeostasis. Leptin is secreted by

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Claudia E Robert-Cooperman, Grace C Dougan, Shari L Moak, Mark G Athanason, Melanie N Kuehl, Harris Bell-Temin, Stanley M Stevens Jr, and Brant R Burkhardt

delivery. This model revealed fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and elevated corticosterone levels. Li et al . (2011) derived a similar adenoviral-delivered overexpressing model with different results, and did not observe glucose intolerance

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Matthew J VandeKopple, Jinghai Wu, Lisa A Baer, Naresh C Bal, Santosh K Maurya, Anuradha Kalyanasundaram, Muthu Periasamy, Kristin I Stanford, Amato J Giaccia, Nicholas C Denko, and Ioanna Papandreou

tissue chemistry To test for glucose tolerance, mice were fasted overnight and 2 g/kg glucose in saline was injected intraperitoneally. Blood was drawn from the tail at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min and tested with a ReliOn Ultima glucose meter (Walmart

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E M de Vries, H C van Beeren, M T Ackermans, A Kalsbeek, E Fliers, and A Boelen

( Boelen et al . 2006 ). Whether NTIS is an adaptive or maladaptive response is still a matter of debate. Fasting leads to a central downregulation of the HPT axis, characterized by increased type 2 deiodinase expression in hypothalamic tanycytes which