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Eun Hee Koh, Ah-Ram Kim, Hyunshik Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Hye-Sun Park, Myoung Seok Ko, Mi-Ok Kim, Hyuk-Joong Kim, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Su Jung Kim, Jin Sun Oh, Chang-Yun Woo, Jung Eun Jang, Jaechan Leem, Myung Hwan Cho and Ki-Up Lee

plasma leptin and resistin were determined by the ELISA technique according to the manufacturer's instructions (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Measurements of cellular respiration and the rate of glycolysis A XF24 Seahorse Bioscience instrument

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Ishita Bakshi, Eurwin Suryana, Lewin Small, Lake-Ee Quek, Amanda E Brandon, Nigel Turner and Gregory J Cooney

Introduction Reduced levels of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis are a well characterised feature of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes ( Bouche et al . 2004 , Abdul-Ghani & DeFronzo 2010 ). In general, the flux through glycolysis is

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Y-H Suh, S-Y Kim, H-Y Lee, B C Jang, J H Bae, J-N Sohn, J-H Bae, S-I Suh, J-W Park, K-U Lee and D-K Song

of glycolysis, we used another insulin secretagogue, methylpyruvate, which bypasses the cytosolic glycolytic pathway and thus directly participates in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP ( Dukes et al. 1998 ). The impaired

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Fausto Bogazzi, Francesco Raggi, Federica Ultimieri, Dania Russo, Antonella Manariti, Aldo D’Alessio, Paolo Viacava, Giovanni Fanelli, Maurizio Gasperi, Luigi Bartalena and Enio Martino

-chain fatty acids could be reduced and glycolysis accelerated (el Alaoui-Talibi et al. 1992 , Allard et al. 1999, Wambolt et al. 1999 ). The latter has been proposed as a compensatory response to low fatty acid oxidation ( Allard et al. 1994

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Kechun Tang, Teresa Pasqua, Angshuman Biswas, Sumana Mahata, Jennifer Tang, Alisa Tang, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Amiya P Sinha-Hikim, Nai-Wen Chi, Nicholas J G Webster, Angelo Corti and Sushil K Mahata

, Cornelio & Di Donato 1985 ). Both deficiencies are accompanied by reduced anaerobic glycolysis resulting in reduced levels of muscle lactate production, higher serum creatine phosphokinase levels and the presence of histological tubular aggregates (TA) in

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Ulrika Bergström, Charlotte Lindfors, Marie Svedberg, Jeanette E Johansen, Jenny Häggkvist, Martin Schalling, Rolf Wibom, Abram Katz and Ida A K Nilsson

ischemic hypothalamus (~1 min of ischemia). Under this condition, glycolysis (lactate accumulation) was reduced by almost 40%, whereas anaerobic ATP turnover was ~10% lower in the anx/anx group ( Table 2 ). Thus, carbohydrate utilization was diminished

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Daniel M Kelly and T Hugh Jones

Insulin signalling  ↑ Akt Muscle b Insulin receptor signalling pathway  ↑ Protein kinase C Muscle b Insulin receptor signalling pathway  ↑ Phosphofructokinase Muscle b Key regulatory enzyme in glycolysis  ↑ Hexokinase Muscle b,d,i Key regulatory enzyme in

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Yan Su, Sujuan Guo, Chunyan Liu, Na Li, Shuang Zhang, Yubin Ding, Xuemei Chen, Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Yingxiong Wang and Rufei Gao

support cell growth and development ( Nath & Villadsen 2015 ). However, in certain pathophysiological states, cells utilize glycolysis for the production of ATP, known as the Warburg effect ( Sancho et al . 2016 ). As early as the 1920s, German biologist

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Olivier Dumortier, Gaia Fabris, Didier F Pisani, Virginie Casamento, Nadine Gautier, Charlotte Hinault, Patricia Lebrun, Christophe Duranton, Michel Tauc, Stéphane Dalle, Julie Kerr-Conte, François Pattou, Marc Prentki and Emmanuel Van Obberghen

trait is that glycolysis is initiated by glucokinase having a high K m for glucose associated to an elevated V max , and being devoid of feedback control ( Prentki et al . 2013 ). As beta cells express low levels of plasma membrane

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Sheree D Martin and Sean L McGee

reprogramming is necessary to allow cancer cells to overcome growth inhibition checkpoints and apoptotic signaling as well as fueling invasion and metastasis ( DeBerardinis & Chandel 2016 ). Increased aerobic glycolysis irrespective of oxygen availability