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Rodrigo S Fortunato, Andrea C F Ferreira, Fabio Hecht, Corinne Dupuy and Denise P Carvalho

propose that ROS could be involved in the sexual dimorphism found in thyroid dysfunctions. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the involvement of NOX4-generated ROS in the estrogen-signaling pathway in thyrocytes. Elucidating this issue is crucial to

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Filip Callewaert, Mieke Sinnesael, Evelien Gielen, Steven Boonen and Dirk Vanderschueren

the pathophysiology of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture risk in men. Skeletal gender differences in radial bone growth (skeletal sexual dimorphism) are traditionally attributed to stimulatory ‘male’ androgen action as opposed to inhibitory

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Andrés J López-Contreras, Jesús D Galindo, Carlos López-García, Maria T Castells, Asunción Cremades and Rafael Peñafiel

. 1973 , Middleton et al . 1987 , Middleton & Bulfield 1988 ). In contrast, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on the regulation of DDC in murine tissues. The possible existence of sexual dimorphism in catecholamine metabolism could be

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Paz Vital, Elena Larrieta and Marcia Hiriart

). Discussion We observed sexual dimorphism in insulin sensitivity, function and morphology of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rat pancreatic islets, and susceptibility to develop diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that serum

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Melissa F Jackson, Dung Luong, Dor Dor Vang, Dilip K Garikipati, James B Stanton, O Lynne Nelson and Buel D Rodgers

shown). Lean fat-free mass was greater in both sexes of Mstn −/− mice and total and percent body fat content was less ( Fig. 1 A), particularly in females. This sexual dimorphism in adiposity among Mstn −/− mice is highly novel and to our knowledge

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Michelle P Marassi, Rodrigo S Fortunato, Alba C Matos da Silva, Valmara S Pereira, Denise P Carvalho, Doris Rosenthal and Vânia M Corrêa da Costa

Iodothyronine deiodinase activities are regulated by sex steroids; however, the mechanisms underlying the reported sexual dimorphism are poorly defined. In the present report, we aimed to investigate whether type 1 deiodinase (D1) sexual dimorphism exists early in sexual development by studying pre-pubertal male (Pm) and female (Pf) rats, as well as adult controls (C) and gonadectomized male and females rats. Adult male Wistar rats were studied 21 days after orchiectomy (Tex), and adult females were studied 21 days after ovariectomy (Ovx), and after estradiol benzoate (Eb) replacement. Serum total triiodothyronine (T3) was higher in pre-pubertal (P) rats than in the matching adults, with no difference between genders, although in adult males T3 was significantly lower than in females. There were no sex or age differences in serum total T4. Serum TSH in pre-pubertal (P) rats was within the adult female range, and both were significantly lower than in adult males. D1 activity in liver was greater in Pm than in Pf. In adult females, liver D1 activity was lower, while in adult males it was higher than in P rats. The same pattern of D1 activity was found in kidney. In thyroid and pituitary, D1 activity was similar in Pm, Pf, and adult females, which were all significantly lower than in the adult male. There were no differences in serum T3 and T4 between C and Tex males, but serum TSH was significantly decreased in Tex rats. Hepatic and renal D1 activities were lower in Tex than in C, but no changes were detected in thyroid and pituitary. In Ovx females, T3 was significantly lower than in the C group. Serum T4 was significantly decreased by estradiol replacement therapy in Ovx rats, in both doses used, whereas TSH was unchanged. Eb replacement increased liver and thyroid D1 activity, but in the kidney, only the highest estradiol dose promoted a significant D1 increase. In conclusion, in males, hepatic and renal D1 activity appears to be significantly influenced by gonadal hormones, in contrast to females, in which only exogenous Eb treatment stimulated D1 activity. The comparison between pre-pubertal and adult rats suggests that serum T3 is not the main regulator of D1 activity, and other factors, besides T3 and gonadal hormones, can modulate D1 activity during murine maturation.

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Ghania Ramdani, Nadine Schall, Hema Kalyanaraman, Nisreen Wahwah, Sahar Moheize, Jenna J Lee, Robert L Sah, Alexander Pfeifer, Darren E Casteel and Renate B Pilz

-catenin and Wnt/β-catenin-related gene expression. The sexual dimorphism of Col1a1- Prkg2 RQ transgenic mice likely relates to cross-talk between ER-α, NO/cGMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways ( Kouzmenko et al. 2004 , Mendelsohn & Karas 2010

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KL Gatford, AR Egan, IJ Clarke and PC Owens

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Gabriela Capllonch-Amer, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Ana M Proenza, Isabel Lladó, Magdalena Gianotti and Francisco J García-Palmer

Introduction Sexual dimorphism in mitochondrial functionality has been described in many rat tissues such as liver, adipose tissue, brain, and skeletal muscle ( Colom et al . 2007 a , b , Valle et al . 2007 a , b , Gómez-Pérez et al . 2008

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Geoffrey Raisman

influences through the brain to the control of the endocrine system ( Vogt 1972 , Raisman 1997 ). And, as anticipated by Marshall, it was the influence of light on reproduction that would be a royal route of investigation. Sexual dimorphism in the brain I