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Madeleine R Di Natale, Alita Soch, Ilvana Ziko, Simone N De Luca, Sarah J Spencer, and Luba Sominsky

Introduction Psychological stress has well-known inhibitory effects on reproductive function ( Rivier & Rivest 1991 , Tilbrook et al. 2002 , Young et al. 2006 , Lynch et al. 2014 ), suppressing hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG

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Ladan Eshkevari, Eva Permaul, and Susan E Mulroney

Introduction The classic response to chronic stress consists of an elegant, concerted interplay of two important pathways, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA). The chronic activation of these stress

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V Squicciarini, R Riquelme, K Wilsterman, G E Bentley, and H E Lara

) from sympathetic nerve terminals ( Benedict et al . 1979 ). Based on this observation, we have established a rat PCOS model, which involves chronic exposure to a cold sympathetic stress stimulus ( Bhatnagar et al . 1995 , Dorfman et al . 2003

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Raul Riquelme, Freddy Ruz, Artur Mayerhofer, and Hernán E Lara

and are associated with deregulation of ovarian function in pathologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Exposure of adult rats to cold stress increases sympathetic activity and NA levels in the ovary ( Dorfman et al. 2003 , Bernuci et

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Henrik Oster

promote the availability of energy at times of need while minimizing overall energetic needs at other times. Two of these, the stress system and the circadian clock, work closely together for this goal, but use fundamentally different principles of

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Barry N Madison, Patrick T K Woo, and Nicholas J Bernier

Introduction Challenges that disturb the homoeostasis of an animal can be met by an activation of the stress response. A key component of this response in fish involves the stimulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal (HPI) axis

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Tanja Jene, Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Annika Hasch, Jennifer Klüpfel, Julia Deuster, Mirjam Maas, Cora H Nijboer, Beat Lutz, Marianne B Müller, and Michael A van der Kooij

Introduction Metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes (DM2) prevalence increased during the last decades, taking on epidemic proportions ( Lovic et al. 2020 ). Chronic psychological stress is recognized as an important risk factor for

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Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Lorraine Jaimes-Hoy, and Jean-Louis Charli

biosynthesis studies Before continuing with this review we would like to stress some problems worthy of consideration when studying the regulation of TRH biosynthesis, given the diversity of experimental paradigms used. Cell lines are homogenous but with a

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George Fink

secretion of pituitary ‘thyrotropic and adrenotropic principles’. Selye’s observations translate in modern terms to stress-induced immunosuppression, peptic ulceration and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and activation of the two main vertebrate stress

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Kook Hwan Kim and Myung-Shik Lee

of the beneficial metabolic effects of several therapeutic agents ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 1 Functional role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) secreted from multiple organs in response to diverse stresses or stimuli. FGF21 expression is induced in