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Yoko Yagishita, Akira Uruno, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Thomas W Kensler and Masayuki Yamamoto

Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) plays a critical role in cellular responses to oxidative and electrophilic stresses ( Itoh et al . 1995 ). In quiescent conditions, Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) suppresses Nrf2 activity by serving as a

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Bo Chen, Yanrong Lu, Younan Chen and Jingqiu Cheng

activity is disrupted, it is no longer possible to maintain appropriate redox balance. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor with a high sensitivity to oxidative stress, binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the

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Gen Chen, Xiangjuan Chen, Chao Niu, Xiaozhong Huang, Ning An, Jia Sun, Shuai Huang, Weijian Ye, Santie Li, Yingjie Shen, Jiaojiao Liang, Weitao Cong and Litai Jin

-inflammatory cytokines such as IL6 , IL8 and TNFa ( Tang et al. 2017 ). Therefore, protecting vascular cells from oxidative stress injury is a major approach in the treatment of diabetic complications ( Rask-Madsen & King 2013 ). Nrf2 is one of the most

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Wenpeng Dong, Ye Jia, Xiuxia Liu, Huan Zhang, Tie Li, Wenlin Huang, Xudong Chen, Fuchun Wang, Weixia Sun and Hao Wu

2-related factor 2 (NRF2) has been identified as a governor of antioxidant and redox signaling. NRF2 activates the transcription of downstream antioxidant genes such as heme oxygenase-1 ( Ho1 ) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 ( Nqo1 ) ( Ruiz et

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Ziping Jiang, Junduo Wu, Fuzhe Ma, Jun Jiang, Linlin Xu, Lei Du, Wenlin Huang, Zhaohui Wang, Ye Jia, Laijin Lu and Hao Wu

, enhancing OS ( Betteridge 2000 , Incalza et al . 2018 ). This has brought to light the activation of the antioxidant defense system as a viable strategy to improve diabetic ED ( Laight et al . 2000 ). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2

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Jia Sun, Haiping Zhu, Xiaorong Wang, Qiuqi Gao, Zhuoying Li and Huiya Huang

that CoQ10, as an effective antioxidant in mitochondria, exerts beneficial effects in DN via mitophagy through restoration of Nrf2/ARE signaling. Thus, a novel role of CoQ10 in alleviating DN-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by modulating mitophagy is

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Anna E Bollag, Tianyang Guo, Ke-Hong Ding, Vivek Choudhary, Xunsheng Chen, Qing Zhong, Jianrui Xu, Kanglun Yu, Mohamed E Awad, Mohammed Elsalanty, Maribeth H Johnson, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Wendy B Bollag and Carlos M Isales

the effects of various endogenous antioxidant systems upregulated by the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2), which is known to induce the expression of various endogenous antioxidant pathways ( de Figueiredo et al. 2015

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Chao Li, Bin Yang, Zhihao Xu, Eric Boivin, Mazzen Black, Wenlong Huang, Baoyou Xu, Ping Wu, Bo Zhang, Xian Li, Kunsong Chen, Yulian Wu and Gina R Rayat

factor NRF2 and the subsequent NRF2/HO1 signaling pathway ( Zhang et al . 2013 ). In vivo study also demonstrated that C3G protected β cells against oxidative stress-mediated injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice ( Sun et al . 2012

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Wanbao Yang, Hui Yan, Quan Pan, James Zheng Shen, Fenghua Zhou, Chaodong Wu, Yuxiang Sun and Shaodong Guo

hyperglucagonemia results in excess hepatic glucose production, enhancing blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( Consoli 1992 ). Inactivation of glucagon receptor is associated with significant improvement of blood glucose in diabetic mice ( Lee et

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Monisha Rajasekaran, Ok-Joo Sul, Eun-Kyung Choi, Ji-Eun Kim, Jae-Hee Suh and Hye-Seon Choi

deficiency significantly increased mitochondrial copy number as well as the mitochondria biogenesis markers, Nrf1 and Tfam ( Fig. 2B ). The expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, which