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C E Koch, M S Bartlang, J T Kiehn, L Lucke, N Naujokat, C Helfrich-Förster, S O Reber and H Oster

cellular physiology, but also regulate responses to external stimuli in a time-of-day-dependent fashion ( Oster 2006 , Lu et al . 2007 ). In line with circadian gating of acute stress responses described previously ( Zimmermann & Critchlow 1967 , Gibbs

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Anthony H Tsang, Mariana Astiz, Maureen Friedrichs and Henrik Oster

implicated in the synchronization of circadian clocks and rhythms in other tissues ( Balsalobre et al . 2000 , Terazono et al . 2003 ). HPA axis activity coordinates different physiological systems and behavior in response to stress. GCs are the end

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Thomas Dickmeis

additional layer of security contributing to the circadian gating of corticosterone secretion by the adrenal gland. By contrast, ACTH-dependent glucocorticoid regulation might play a more prominent role in acute stress responses ( Kalsbeek et al . 1996 b

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Michael Hastings, John S O’Neill and Elizabeth S Maywood

under circadian regulation. Moreover, this local clock gates the response of the adrenal cortex to ACTH, itself a circadian cue dependent upon the SCN ( Oster et al . 2006 ). By using local over-expression of Rev-erbαto suppress the clockwork in the

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Marianna Minnetti, Valeria Hasenmajer, Riccardo Pofi, Mary Anna Venneri, Krystallenia I Alexandraki and Andrea M Isidori

). This leads to a different response and resilience to circadian ‘challenges’ such as stress: in fact, the adrenal clock seems to have a gating effect on stress response in a sexually dimorphic manner, with ACTH exerting a larger response from female

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Sarika Paul and Timothy M Brown

147 – 157 . ( ) 6771669 Williams WP 3rd Jarjisian SG Mikkelsen JD Kriegsfeld LJ 2011 Circadian control of kisspeptin and a gated GnRH response mediate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge

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Marian Joëls

a trough at the start of the inactive period (light gray background), resulting in an overarching circadian pattern. (C) On top of the circadian pattern, corticosteroids are released after stress. The stress response starts with the rapid release of

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Marian Joëls and E Ronald de Kloet

). The brain MR also appeared to affect autonomic outflow and the blood pressure response to a stressor. We found that i.c.v. administration of the MR antagonist RU28318 caused a slow and long-lasting suppression of the stress-induced pressor response

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Jonathan D Johnston and Debra J Skene

: dissociating a seasonal timer from the circadian-based photoperiod response . Endocrinology 146 3782 – 3790 . ( doi:10.1210/en.2005-0132 ) Liu C Weaver DR Jin X Shearman LP Pieschl RL Gribkoff VK Reppert SM 1997 Molecular dissection of

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Ryun S Ahn, Jee H Choi, Bum C Choi, Jung H Kim, Sung H Lee and Simon S Sung

of a preovulatory LH surge is gated by a circadian oscillator in the SCN. Studies exploring the effect of the SCN in animals have shown that bilateral lesions of the SCN result in abolition of the preovulatory LH surge, induction of persistent estrus