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Jing Lu, Joshua Reese, Ying Zhou, and Emmet Hirsch

critical role in parturition ( Mackler et al . 1999 , Thomson et al . 1999 , Hamilton et al . 2012 , Care et al . 2013 , Shynlova et al . 2013 ). In mice, numbers of uterine macrophages increase during the period of early pregnancy and then decline

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Florencia Figueroa, Gisela Mendoza, Darío Cardozo, Fabián Mohamed, Liliana Oliveros, and Myriam Forneris

and follicular development ( Aguado 2002 ). The sympathetic nervous system enters the spleen by periarteriolar pathways and terminates in T-cell and macrophage areas ( Straub 2004 ). In addition to the presence of adrenergic receptors in these

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A D Dobrian, M A Hatcher, J J Brotman, E V Galkina, P Taghavie-Moghadam, H Pei, B A Haynes, and J L Nadler

-conjugated primary antibodies: Cocktail1 (for macrophage phenotyping): CD11b-Pacific Blue, CD45-PerCP, Cd11c-PE, F4/80-Alexa 647, and CD206-FITC; Cocktail2 (for T cell phenotyping): CD3-Pacific Orange; CD4-APC; CD8-FITC; CD45-PerCP, NK40.6-Pacific Blue. All of

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Mari van de Vyver

inflammatory process is well described in literature and consists of two sequential phases, the first involving neutrophil, monocyte/macrophage recruitment, and activation as illustrated in Fig. 3A . In the absence of infection, the primary aim of this initial

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André S D Molgat, AnneMarie Gagnon, Charlie Foster, and Alexander Sorisky

. In addition to preadipocytes and adipocytes, adipose tissue contains macrophages (adipose tissue macrophages; ATMs). Their numbers and activation states vary with the extent of adiposity ( Weisberg et al . 2003 , Xu et al . 2003 , Lumeng et al

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Sun-O Ka, Mi-Young Song, Eun Ju Bae, and Byung-Hyun Park

tissues and the consequent tissue inflammation are responsible for obesity-related insulin resistance. Macrophages are infiltrating immune cells that are central to initiating and orchestrating obesity-induced local inflammation. The importance of

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Zhenguang Zhang, Agnes E Coutinho, Tak Yung Man, Tiina M J Kipari, Patrick W F Hadoke, Donald M Salter, Jonathan R Seckl, and Karen E Chapman

arthritis, the role of endogenous corticosteroids in regulating inflammation is less well understood ( Coutinho & Chapman 2011 ). Nevertheless, macrophages have emerged as a key target for the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of endogenous

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Dario A Gutierrez and Alyssa H Hasty

Introduction Accumulation of inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue (AT) during obesity has been shown to correlate with AT inflammation and subsequent insulin resistance (IR; Weisberg et al . 2003 , Xu et al . 2003 ). In addition, the

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AnneMarie Gagnon, Charlie Foster, Anne Landry, and Alexander Sorisky

Introduction Obesity-associated insulin resistance is related to adipose tissue inflammation, characterized by macrophage infiltration and altered adipose tissue remodeling, including adipocyte hypertrophy ( Weisberg et al . 2003 , Xu et al

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Manesh Chittezhath, Cho M M Wai, Vanessa S Y Tay, Minni Chua, Sarah R Langley, and Yusuf Ali

. However, pancreatic islets contain other different cell types besides β-cells (e.g. other endocrine cells, vascular endothelial cells, sympathetic neurons, as well as macrophages). These other cell types may be the ones that are responsive to TLR ligands