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Sinead N Kelly, T Joseph McKenna, and Leonie S Young

enzyme genes is the recruitment by nuclear receptors of coregulators (coactivators and corepressors) which interact with and effect transactivation ( McKenna et al. 1999 a ). It has been suggested that cofactors serve as a bridging apparatus between the

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C Marc Luetjens, Aditya Didolkar, Sabine Kliesch, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann, Werner Böcker, Eberhard Nieschlag, and Manuela Simoni

Introduction In males, the expression of the genomic progesterone receptor (PR) and the physiological function of progesterone at the molecular level are not well understood ( Oettel & Mukhopadhyay 2004 ). Recently a non-genomic PR

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J M P Pabona, M C Velarde, Z Zeng, F A Simmen, and R C M Simmen

Introduction Estrogen (E) control of cell proliferation is a complex process that is subject to regulation at many levels. The nuclear receptor/transcription factor estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) is the key regulatory participant, transducing E action

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Z Yu, CH Lee, C Chinpaisal, and LN Wei

The orphan nuclear receptor TR2 and its truncated isoform deleted in the ligand binding domain (LBD) were localized exclusively in the nuclei as revealed by two methods of detection. An anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibody detected specific nuclear localization of HA-tagged receptors and the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged receptors were found to be distributed in the nuclei of living cells. By deletion analyses, the sequence responsible for targeting this receptor into the nucleus was defined. A stretch of 20 amino acid residues (KDCVINKHHRNRCQYCRLQR) within the second zinc-finger of this receptor is required for its nuclear localization and this signal is constitutively active. No nuclear localization signal was found in the N-terminus or the LBD. The GFP-tagged receptor remained biologically active, as evidenced by its repressive activity on the reporter that carried a binding site for this receptor, a direct repeat-5 (DR5). An electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed to characterize the binding property of TR2 and its truncated isoform. TR2 bound to the DR5 as dimers whereas its truncated isoform bound as monomers.

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Jung-Min Koh, Young-Sun Lee, Chang-Hyun Byun, Eun-Ju Chang, Hyunsoo Kim, Yong Hee Kim, Hong-Hee Kim, and Ghi Su Kim

been addressed. We therefore tested the effects of α-LA on osteoblast-lineage cells and osteoclasts, and observed a dissociation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) expression and osteoclastogenesis. That is, α-LA markedly

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J Kwakkel, W M Wiersinga, and A Boelen

liver is positively regulated by T3, primarily by binding of the liganded thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-β1 to TREs in the promoter region of the D1 gene ( Jakobs et al. 1997 , Amma et al. 2001 ). The induction of proinflammatory cytokines by

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PG McTernan, MC Sheppard, and GR Williams

HL60 cells differentiate to monocytes or neutrophils in response to 1 alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (D3) and retinoids respectively. D3 and retinoid actions converge since their receptors (VDR, RAR) heterodimerise with a common partner, RXR, which also interacts with thyroid hormone (T3) receptors (T3R). HL60 cells were treated with combinations of D3 and retinoids to induce differentiation and to investigate whether increased VDR or RAR expression correlated with monocyte or neutrophil differentiation and whether altered receptor concentrations affected DNA-binding specificity. As assessed by Western blotting, VDR and RXR expression was unchanged in monocytes relative to controls but levels of RAR and T3R were reduced. In contrast, only VDR expression was reduced in neutrophils. T3 did not promote differentiation or influence its induction by D3 or retinoids and did not affect expression of any receptor. Gel mobility-shift analysis revealed that nuclear extracts from undifferentiated cells, monocytes and neutrophils interacted differently with VDRE-, RARE- and RXRE-binding sites. Monocyte nuclear protein/DNA complexes contain readily detectable VDR and RXR whereas neutrophil complexes contain RAR and RXR. Thus hormone-induced changes in receptor stoichiometry favour either VDR/RXR or RAR/RXR heterodimerisation and correlate with hormone-induced differentiation of HL60 cells to monocytes or neutrophils respectively.

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T Kukita, A Kukita, T Watanabe, and T Iijima

Although calcitonin has been clinically utilized as a primary treatment for several metabolic bone diseases, its inhibitory effects against osteoclastic function diminish after several days owing to the calcitonin 'escape phenomenon'. We have previously found a unique cell-surface antigen (Kat1-antigen) expressed on rat osteoclasts. Here we show evidence that, in the presence of calcitonin, the Kat1-antigen is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Treatment of bone marrow cultures for forming osteoclast-like cells with anti-Kat1-antigen monoclonal antibody (mAb Kat1) provoked a marked stimulation of osteoclast-like cell formation only in the presence of calcitonin but not in its absence. Osteoclastogenesis stimulated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) ligand/osteoclast differentiation factor was further augmented by mAb Kat1 in the presence of calcitonin. Furthermore, even in the presence of the osteoprotegerin/osteoclast inhibitory factor, mAb Kat1 induced osteoclast-like cell formation. Our current data suggest that the Kat1-antigen is a molecule that is distinct from receptor activator of NF-kappaB. The presence of the unique Kat1-antigen on cells in the osteoclast lineage appears to contribute to the fine regulation of osteoclastogenesis in vivo. Expression of this cell-surface molecule in cells in the osteoclast lineage may partly explain the mechanism responsible for the escape phenomenon.

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T Takeda, H Kurachi, T Yamamoto, Y Nishio, Y Nakatsuji, K Morishige, A Miyake, and Y Murata

Cytokines and steroid hormones use different sets of signal transduction pathways, which seem to be unrelated. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) uses JAK tyrosine kinase and STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) transcription factor. Glucocorticoid binds glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. We have studied the crosstalk between the IL-6-JAK-STAT and glucocorticoid-nuclear receptor pathways. IL-6 and glucocorticoid synergistically activated the IL-6 response element on the rat alpha2-macroglobulin promoter (APRE)-driven luciferase gene. The exogenous expression of GR enhanced the synergism. The exogenous expression of dominant negative STAT3 completely abolished the IL-6 plus glucocorticoid-induced activation of the APRE-luciferase gene. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 stimulated by IL-6 alone was not different from that by IL-6 plus glucocorticoid. The protein level of STAT3 was also not increased by glucocorticoid stimulation. The time course of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation by IL-6 plus glucocorticoid was not different from that by IL-6 alone. The synergism was studied on the two other IL-6 response elements, the junB promoter (JRE-IL-6) and the interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) promoter (IRF-GAS) which could be activated by STAT3. The synergistic activation by glucocorticoid on the IL-6-activated JRE-IL-6 and the IRF-GAS-driven luciferase gene was not detected. Glucocorticoid did not change the mobility of IL-6-induced APRE-binding proteins in a gel shift assay. These results suggest that the synergism was through the GR and STAT3, and the coactivation pathway which was specific for APRE was the target of glucocorticoid.

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M Takamoto, K Tsuji, T Yamashita, H Sasaki, T Yano, Y Taketani, T Komori, A Nifuji, and M Noda

Hedgehog signaling is considered to play a crucial role in chondrogenesis by regulation through a network of cytokine actions, which is not fully understood. We examined the effect of hedgehog signaling on the expression of core-binding factor a1 (Cbfa1), a critical transcription factor for the development of bone and cartilage. Primary chondrocytes prepared from the costal cartilage of newborn mice were treated with N-terminal fragment of recombinant murine sonic hedgehog (rmShh-N). Northern blot analysis indicated that Cbfa1 mRNA expression levels in the chondrocyte cultures were elevated by the treatment with rmShh-N. rmShh-N treatment enhanced 1.8 kb Cbfa1 promoter activity in chondrocytes, suggesting the presence of transcriptional control. As Cbfa1-binding site(s) have been located in the promoter of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) gene, we also examined RANKL expression. rmShh-N treatment upregulated RANKL and RANK mRNA expression levels in chondrocytes. Interestingly, RANKL suppressed the hedgehog enhancement of alkaline phosphatase activity in chondrocytes, suggesting the presence of a link between these signaling molecules. We conclude that hedgehog signaling activates Cbfa1 gene expression through its promoter in chondrocytes, and also activates and interacts with RANKL to maintain cartilage development.