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Shuai Li and Wipawee Winuthayanon

have direct contact with the oviductal fluid, which is generated by the transudate fluid from the systematic circulation and the secretory epithelial cells of the oviduct ( Leese 1988 ). The fluid current is generated by ciliated epithelial cells and

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Linah Al-Alem, Phillip J Bridges, Wen Su, Ming C Gong, Marc Iglarz, and CheMyong Ko

with the COC and follicular fluid at the time of ovulation, (3) that the COC itself may be a source of EDN2, and (4) the contractile properties of the oviduct, we hypothesized that granulosa cell or COC-produced EDN2 binding to a specific endothelin

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CY Andersen

The so-called free hormone hypothesis predicts that the biological activity of a given steroid correlates with the free protein-unbound concentration rather than with the total concentration (i.e. free plus protein-bound). Cortisol is a glucocorticoid with many diverse functions and the free hormone hypothesis seems to apply well to the observed effects of cortisol. The ovaries express glucocorticoid receptors and are affected by cortisol, but lack the necessary enzymes for cortisol synthesis. Ovarian follicles modulate the biological activity of cortisol by (1) follicular production of especially progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone which, within the follicle, reach levels that displace cortisol from its binding proteins, in particular, cortisol-binding protein, making it available for biological action and (2) a developmental regulated expression of two types of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (i.e. 11 beta-HSD type 1 and type 2), which oppose the action of one another, the 11 beta-HSD type 2 predominantly inactivating cortisol to cortisone, while 11 beta-HSD type 1 reverses this reaction. As a result, a high concentration of cortisol available for biological action is present in the preovulatory follicle just prior to ovulation and it has been suggested that cortisol may function to reduce the inflammatory-like reactions occurring in connection with ovulation. This paper suggests (1) that the function of the oviduct is also affected by the high levels of free cortisol released in preovulatory follicular fluid at ovulation and (2) that formation and function of the corpus luteum benefits from a high local concentration of free cortisol, whereas the surrounding developing follicles may experience negative effects. If this hypothesis proves correct it may describe a new physiological mechanism by which cortisol interacts with the female reproductive organs, showing that the biologically active concentration of a steroid locally can be regulated to serve specific functions.

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Simone Odau, Christoph Gabler, Christoph Holder, and Ralf Einspanier

that higher PLA 2 activity in oviductal epithelium was measured in estradiol-treated rabbits compared with the control ( Morishita et al. 1993 ). PLA 2 activity was observed in bovine oviductal fluid with the highest PLA 2 activity in the

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Stefan Cuoni Teilmann, Christian Alexandro Clement, Jørgen Thorup, Anne Grete Byskov, and Søren Tvorup Christensen

results support the conclusion that ciliary PR is important during transport of the cumulus-oocyte complex, since cumulus cells secrete progesterone to the oviductal fluid. In protein samples from whole infundibulum tissue, PR-A and PR

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Meijia Zhang, Haiyan Hong, Bo Zhou, Shiying Jin, Chao Wang, Maoyong Fu, Songbo Wang, and Guoliang Xia

al. 1988 ), ovary and follicular fluid ( Anderson et al. 1994 ), granulosa cells ( Kim et al. 1992 , Ivanova et al. 2003 ), oocytes ( Kim et al. 1993 ), oviduct ( Kim et al. 1997 ), testis ( Pelletier 1988 ), and spermatozoa ( Silvestroni

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Karine Reynaud, Sylvie Chastant-Maillard, Séverine Batard, Sandra Thoumire, and Philippe Monget

Committee of the National Veterinary School of Alfort. Follicular fluid collection Ovariectomies were performed during follicular phase using a conventional surgical procedure ( Fingland 1998 ). Ovarian bursa (with ovaries, oviducts and the tip of the

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G Basini, S Bussolati, S E Santini, F Bianchi, M Careri, A Mangia, M Musci, and F Grasselli

fluid collected from follicles at different stages of development. Thereafter, the effects of both hydroxyestrogens on VEGFA production from swine granulosa cell were studied. In addition, using an angiogenesis bioassay developed in our laboratory

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Mary C Gieske, Gi Youn Na, Yongbum Koo, Misung Jo, Thomas E Curry Jr, and Chemyong Ko

-selective, unable to distinguish between pathogen and host cell, host tissues have constructed a defense mechanism consisting of both membrane-bound and fluid-phase complement regulatory proteins, which check the activity of the complement cascade at the level of

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A M Carter, M J Kingston, K K Han, D M Mazzuca, K Nygard, and V K M Han

ratio of >0.9. We took samples of amniotic fluid and collected fetal and maternal blood by cardiac puncture. Samples were collected on ice and the plasma and amniotic fluid stored at −20 °C. The dam was then killed by an overdose of