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Dominique A Glauser and Werner Schlegel

Part I: introduction to FOXO transcription factors Classification and structure of FOXO proteins FOXO transcription factors form a subclass of the large family of Forkhead proteins characterized by the

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David W Scoville, Kristin Lichti-Kaiser, Sara A Grimm, and Anton M Jetten

these results to publicly available data on the genomic binding of several other islet-enriched transcription factors, in order to determine whether GLIS3 regulates pancreatic beta cell gene transcription by binding to distinct regulatory hubs with other

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Jinwon Eo, Kyuyong Han, Kenneth M Murphy, Haengseok Song, and Hyunjung Jade Lim

( Hagglund et al . 1999 ). Etv4 transcription factors belong to superfamily of E26 transformation-specific (Ets) transcription factors. The Ets transcription factors regulate expression of target genes by binding to a ∼10 bp element in the promoters of

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Jinke Wang, Jie Lu, Guangming Gu, and Yingxun Liu

Introduction Transcription factors (TFs) are central to almost every fundamental cellular process ( Latchman 2008 , Ladunga 2010 ) and account for ∼5–10% of genes in eukaryotes ( Reece-Hoyes et al . 2005 , Adryan & Teichmann 2006 , Ho et al

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Michael Mannstadt, Emily Holick, Wenping Zhao, and Harald Jüppner

orthologs of the Drosophila gene glial cells missing) is a transcription factor which is exclusively expressed during embryonic development in the parathyroid-specific domain that later gives rise to the parathyroid glands ( Kim et al . 1998 , Günther

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Débora Cristina de Moraes, Mario Vaisman, Flavia Lucia Conceição, and Tânia Maria Ortiga-Carvalho

( Kioussi et al . 1999 ), Tpit ( Lamolet et al . 2001 ) and Prop1 ( Sornson et al . 1996 ). Figure 2 Temporal and spatial activation of pituitary transcription factors. In response to the BMP2–FGF8 ventral–dorsal gradient, pituitary cell lineages are

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L Grinius, C Kessler, J Schroeder, and S Handwerger

Introduction Transcription factors of the forkhead (FOXO) family of DNA-binding proteins are involved in regulation of diverse cellular functions, such as differentiation, metabolism, proliferation, and survival (for review see

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Sharon Maor, Doris Mayer, Ronit I Yarden, Adrian V Lee, Rive Sarfstein, Haim Werner, and Moshe Z Papa

flanking the transcription start site is extremely GC-rich, and contains numerous potential binding sites for transcription factor Sp1, a zinc-finger-containing nuclear protein that has been shown to strongly transactivate the IGF-IR promoter ( Beitner

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Eric W-F Lam, Kunal Shah, and Jan J Brosens

. 2002 a , b ), also play a vital role in determining and fine-tuning the transcriptional responses in target cells. Furthermore, certain factors have emerged as important for safeguarding genomic integrity and tissue homeostasis during these rapid cycles

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Xiaoning Li, Junhua Xiao, Yating Fan, Kan Yang, Kai Li, Xin Wang, Yanhua Lu, and Yuxun Zhou

, a database of transcription factor-binding profiles ( http://jaspar.genereg.net ). The productions of each pair of primers covered two to four binding sites of TBX21 with score higher than 5.5. The primers for each gene were listed in Supplementary