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Ladan Eshkevari, Eva Permaul, and Susan E Mulroney

Introduction The classic response to chronic stress consists of an elegant, concerted interplay of two important pathways, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA). The chronic activation of these stress

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Cintia B Ueta, Gustavo W Fernandes, Luciane P Capelo, Tatiane L Fonseca, Flávia D'Angelo Maculan, Cecilia H A Gouveia, Patrícia C Brum, Marcelo A Christoffolete, Marcelo S Aoki, Carmen L Lancellotti, Brian Kim, Antonio C Bianco, and Miriam O Ribeiro

system (SNS) with the release of norepinephrine (NE) and stimulation of α and β adrenergic receptors ( Bachman et al . 2002 ). The latter are G-protein-coupled receptors that include the β 1 , β 2 , and β 3 isoforms, all of which are expressed in BAT

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C Aceves and R Rojas-Huidobro

Previous works led us to propose that peripheral iodothyronine deiodination is mainly regulated by the reciprocal interaction between the thyroid and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). In this study, we analyzed the role suckling exerts, through SNS activation, upon deiodination of thyronines in liver, heart, brown adipose tissue and mammary gland during lactation. Our results showed that resuckling causes a concurrent stimulatory response on deiodinase type 1 (D1) in heart and mammary gland, but not in liver and brown adipose tissue. The stimulatory response was mimicked by norepinephrine and by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, through the overexpression of the large form of D1 mRNA. These results suggested that, during lactation, peripheral thyronine deiodination is co-ordinated by the SNS, and suckling is a major modulatory influence.

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David O'Regan, Christopher J Kenyon, Jonathan R Seckl, and Megan C Holmes

, vasculature and brain ( Torres et al . 1997 , Ortiz et al . 2003 , Kreider et al . 2005 , Roghair et al . 2005 ). Alterations in the activity or responsivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), either systemically or in one of these specific

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Volker Hartenstein

. Outside the PI and PL, the tritocerebrum and the ventral nerve cord, as well as the ganglia of the stomatogastric nervous system (SNS) contain neurosecretory cells. NSC axons of the tritocerebrum and subesophageal ganglion projecting toward the corpora

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L Francisco Lorenzo-Martín, Mauricio Menacho-Márquez, Salvatore Fabbiano, Omar Al-Massadi, Antonio Abad, Sonia Rodríguez-Fdez, María A Sevilla, María J Montero, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, and Xosé R Bustelo

Introduction Physiological and metabolic balance in the organism requires extensive crosstalk between the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Efferent signals to the periphery are mediated by the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic

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Nathalie Marissal-Arvy, Alexandra Gaumont, Allan Langlois, Fabrice Dabertrand, Marion Bouchecareilh, Claudine Tridon, and Pierre Mormede

controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS, lipolytic; Bartness & Bamshad 1998 , Fliers et al . 2003 ) and the HPA axis ( Bjorntorp 1991 ). Low doses of corticosterone or aldosterone via MR have been described to exert lipogenic effects in rats

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Christopher J Charles, David L Jardine, Miriam T Rademaker, and A Mark Richards

) for UCN2 and UCN3 ( Rademaker et al . 2002 , 2005 , 2006 ). The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a pivotal element of normal cardiac and circulatory regulation. We have recently reported that UCN1 potently inhibits cardiac sympathetic nerve

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Ivana Vaněčková, Lenka Maletínská, Michal Behuliak, Veronika Nagelová, Josef Zicha, and Jaroslav Kuneš

visceral obesity elicits greater activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) than subcutaneous obesity does ( Grassi et al . 2004 ); however, the mechanism by which visceral obesity is more active in SNS activation is not clear. The obesity

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Yolanda Diz-Chaves, Manuel Gil-Lozano, Laura Toba, Juan Fandiño, Hugo Ogando, Lucas C González-Matías, and Federico Mallo

nervous system (SNS) activation, favours the accumulation of visceral fat and contributes to the clinical presentation of visceral obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and related cardiometabolic complications. In addition, both circulating and local