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Lucia Gajdosechova, Katarina Krskova, Ana Belen Segarra, Andrea Spolcova, Maciej Suski, Rafal Olszanecki, and Stefan Zorad

Introduction The neuropeptide oxytocin is a hormone with a wide range of central and peripheral effects. Besides its well-known role in labour and lactation ( Gimpl & Fahrenholz 2001 ), oxytocin is released in response to various stress stimuli

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Gareth Leng, Rafael Pineda, Nancy Sabatier, and Mike Ludwig

stimulation of the neural stalk in lactating rabbits resulted in a sharp rise in intramammary pressure, and they inferred that this was the consequence of oxytocin secreted from the posterior pituitary. They noted that the response to stimulation depended

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Mone Zaidi, Maria I New, Harry C Blair, Alberta Zallone, Ramkumarie Baliram, Terry F Davies, Christopher Cardozo, James Iqbal, Li Sun, Clifford J Rosen, and Tony Yuen

Argiolas A Collu M Gessa GL Melis MR Serra G 1988 The oxytocin antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)-Orn8-vasotocin inhibits male copulatory behaviour in rats . European Journal of Pharmacology 149 389 – 392 . (

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Elena Conte, Adele Romano, Michela De Bellis, Marialuisa de Ceglia, Maria Rosaria Carratù, Silvana Gaetani, Fatima Maqoud, Domenico Tricarico, and Claudia Camerino

Introduction The neuropeptide oxytocin (Oxt) is a hormone/neurotransmitter with both central and peripheral effects. Oxt neurons are located in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus. The peripheral Oxt is

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Tatiane Vilhena-Franco, André Souza Mecawi, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, and José Antunes-Rodrigues

experimental model extensively used to study these responses. WD increases osmolality and decreases plasma volume, inducing the release of hormones that act to maintain homeostasis, such as vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT), and the activation of the renin

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Eriko Furube, Tetsuya Mannari, Shoko Morita, Kazunori Nishikawa, Ayaka Yoshida, Masanobu Itoh, and Seiji Miyata

arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) into the blood circulation from their axonal terminals ( Miyata & Hatton 2002 ). Similarly, they release a variety of neuropeptides into the blood circulation at the median eminence (ME) to control secretion of

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Hiroki Otsubo, Susumu Hyodo, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Makoto Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Takeshi Saito, Toyoaki Ohbuchi, Toru Yokoyama, Hiroaki Fujihara, Tetsuro Matsumoto, Yoshio Takei, and Yoichi Ueta

vasopressin (AVP; Yokoi et al . 1996 ). Central administration of AM activated oxytocin (OXT)-secreting neurones in the supraoptic (SON) and the paraventricular nuclei (PVN; Serino et al . 1999 , Ueta et al . 2000 ), and markedly increased plasma OXT

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Meghan M White and Willis K Samson

and SON contain neurons that produce arginine vasopressin (AVP) and/or oxytocin (OT) and project not only to the posterior pituitary gland, but also elsewhere within the central nervous system (CNS). While AVP is well known to control fluid balance by

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Greisa Vila, Michaela Riedl, Michael Resl, Aart Jan van der Lely, Leo J Hofland, Martin Clodi, and Anton Luger

expenditure ( van der Lely et al . 2004 ). A recent study has showed that intraventricular administration of ghrelin increases the c-fos activity of oxytocin (OXT)-secreting neurons ( Olszewski et al . 2007 ). OXT is involved in social bonding, has important

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X H Zhang, S Filippi, L Vignozzi, A Morelli, R Mancina, M Luconi, S Donati, M Marini, G B Vannelli, G Forti, and M Maggi

oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene and protein in rabbit and human cavernous tissue in a similar concentration to that found in other portions of the male genital tract ( Vignozzi et al. 2004 ), classically considered the main male target of oxytocin (OT), such