MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small molecules negatively regulating gene expression by diminishing their target mRNAs. Emerging studies have shown that miRNAs play diverse roles in diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D are two major types of diabetes. T1D is characterized by a reduction in insulin release from the pancreatic β-cells, while T2D is caused by islet β-cell dysfunction in response to insulin resistance. This review describes the miRNAs that control insulin release and production by regulating cellular membrane electrical excitability (ATP:ADP ratio), insulin granule exocytosis, insulin synthesis in β-cells, and β-cell fate and islet mass formation. This review also examines miRNAs involved the insulin resistance of liver, fat, and skeletal muscle, which change insulin sensitivity pathways (insulin receptors, glucose transporter type 4, and protein kinase B pathways). This review discusses the potential application of miRNAs in diabetes, including the use of gene therapy and therapeutic compounds to recover miRNA function in diabetes, as well as the role of miRNAs as potential biomarkers for T1D and T2D.
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- Abstract: Diabetes x
- Abstract: Islets x
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- Abstract: BetaCells x
- Abstract: Pancreas x
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- Abstract: Insulinoma x
- Abstract: Glucagon x
- Abstract: IGF* x
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Haiyong Chen, Hui-Yao Lan, Dimitrios H Roukos, and William C Cho
Lucy M Hinder, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Lisa L McLean, Subramaniam Pennathur, and Eva L Feldman
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes and is characterized by distal-to-proximal loss of peripheral nerve axons. The idea of tissue-specific pathological alterations in energy metabolism in diabetic complications-prone tissues is emerging. Altered nerve metabolism in type 1 diabetes models is observed; however, therapeutic strategies based on these models offer limited efficacy to type 2 diabetic patients with DN. Therefore, understanding how peripheral nerves metabolically adapt to the unique type 2 diabetic environment is critical to develop disease-modifying treatments. In the current study, we utilized targeted liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to characterize the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolomes in sural nerve, sciatic nerve, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from male type 2 diabetic mice (BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb; db/db) and controls (db/+). We report depletion of glycolytic intermediates in diabetic sural nerve and sciatic nerve (glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (sural nerve only), 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and lactate), with no significant changes in DRG. Citrate and isocitrate TCA cycle intermediates were decreased in sural nerve, sciatic nerve, and DRG from diabetic mice. Utilizing LC/electrospray ionization/MS/MS and HPLC methods, we also observed increased protein and lipid oxidation (nitrotyrosine; hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids) in db/db tissue, with a proximal-to-distal increase in oxidative stress, with associated decreased aconitase enzyme activity. We propose a preliminary model, whereby the greater change in metabolomic profile, increase in oxidative stress, and decrease in TCA cycle enzyme activity may cause distal peripheral nerves to rely on truncated TCA cycle metabolism in the type 2 diabetes environment.
Suwattanee Kooptiwut, Wanthanee Hanchang, Namoiy Semprasert, Mutita Junking, Thawornchai Limjindaporn, and Pa-thai Yenchitsomanus
Hypogonadism in men is associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with testosterone has been shown to protect pancreatic β-cell against apoptosis due to toxic substances including streptozotocin and high glucose. One of the pathological mechanisms of glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is the induction of the local rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). The role of testosterone in regulation of the pancreatic RAAS is still unknown. This study aims to investigate the protective action of testosterone against glucotoxicity-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via alteration of the pancreatic RAAS pathway. Rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1) cells or isolated male mouse islets were cultured in basal and high-glucose media in the presence or absence of testosterone, losartan, and angiotensin II (Ang II), then cell apoptosis, cleaved caspase 3 expression, oxidative stress, and expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and p47phox mRNA and protein were measured. Testosterone and losartan showed similar effects in reducing pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. Testosterone significantly reduced expression of AGTR1 protein in INS-1 cells cultured in high-glucose medium or high-glucose medium with Ang II. Testosterone decreased the expression of AGTR1 and p47phox mRNA and protein in comparison with levels in cells cultured in high-glucose medium alone. Furthermore, testosterone attenuated superoxide production when co-cultured with high-glucose medium. In contrast, when cultured in basal glucose, supplementation of testosterone did not have any effect on cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and expression of AGT1R and p47phox. In addition, high-glucose medium did not increase cleaved caspase 3 in AGTR1 knockdown experiments. Thus, our results indicated that testosterone prevents pancreatic β-cell apoptosis due to glucotoxicity through reduction of the expression of ATGR1 and its signaling pathway.
Yuichiro Takeuchi, Keishi Yamauchi, Junko Nakamura, Satoshi Shigematsu, and Kiyoshi Hashizume
The biological effects of angiotensin II (AngII) are mediated by two major subtypes of AngII receptors, type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R). In this study, we attempted to elucidate the role of AngII subtype receptor-specific regulation in migration and proliferation of mouse cultured mesangial (MSG) cells. We found that 100 nM AngII stimulated weak migration of MSG cells. Cell motility increased more in the presence of AT2R than in the presence of AT1R, and it was suppressed by guanylate cyclase inhibitors. On the other hand, the activation of AT1R resulted in increased cell numbers, while AT2R activation inhibited cell proliferation. Moreover, high concentrations of glucose (25 mM) stimulated the expression of AT2R but not AT1R. These results indicate that there are receptor subtype-specific roles in MSG cells, and it is therefore possible that the activation of AT2R stimulates repair of glomerular tissue defect, by regulation of migration and proliferation of MSG cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative concentrations of AT1R and AT2R are important factors in the regulation of AngII function in glomerular tissue, and alterations in the concentrations of these receptors may contribute to progression of or protection from diabetic nephropathy.
Jennifer S ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Paul F C Groot, Henricus G Ruhé, Frederik Barkhof, Michaela Diamant, and Richard G Ijzerman
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) affects appetite, supposedly mediated via the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we investigate whether modulation of CNS responses to palatable food consumption may be a mechanism by which GLP1 contributes to the central regulation of feeding. Using functional MRI, we determined the effects of endogenous GLP1 and treatment with the GLP1 analogue liraglutide on CNS activation to chocolate milk receipt. Study 1 included 20 healthy lean individuals and 20 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Scans were performed on two occasions: during infusion of the GLP1 receptor antagonist exendin 9–39 (blocking actions of endogenous GLP1) and during placebo infusion. Study 2 was a randomised, cross-over intervention study carried out in 20 T2DM patients, comparing treatment with liraglutide to insulin, after 10 days and 12 weeks. Compared with lean individuals, T2DM patients showed reduced activation to chocolate milk in right insula (P = 0.04). In lean individuals, blockade of endogenous GLP1 effects inhibited activation in bilateral insula (P ≤ 0.03). Treatment in T2DM with liraglutide, vs insulin, increased activation to chocolate milk in right insula and caudate nucleus after 10 days (P ≤ 0.03); however, these effects ceased to be significant after 12 weeks. Our findings in healthy lean individuals indicate that endogenous GLP1 is involved in the central regulation of feeding by affecting central responsiveness to palatable food consumption. In obese T2DM, treatment with liraglutide may improve the observed deficit in responsiveness to palatable food, which may contribute to the induction of weight loss observed during treatment. However, no long-term effects of liraglutide were observed.
Isabel Göhring and Hindrik Mulder
In this issue of Journal of Endocrinology, Dr Han and colleagues report a protective effect of the glutamate dehydrogenase activator 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) under diabetes-like conditions that impair β-cell function in both a pancreatic β-cell line and db/db mice. Based on these observations, the authors suggest that BCH could serve as a novel treatment modality in type 2 diabetes. The present commentary discusses the importance of the findings. Some additional questions are raised, which may be addressed in future investigations, as there is some concern regarding the BCH treatment of β-cell failure.
Tingting Yang, Min He, Hailiang Zhang, Paula Q Barrett, and Changlong Hu
Aldosterone, which plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure, is produced by zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of the adrenal cortex. Exaggerated overproduction of aldosterone from ZG cells causes primary hyperaldosteronism. In ZG cells, calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels plays a central role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion. Previous studies in animal adrenals and human adrenal adrenocortical cell lines suggest that the T-type but not the L-type calcium channel activity drives aldosterone production. However, recent clinical studies show that somatic mutations in L-type calcium channels are the second most prevalent cause of aldosterone-producing adenoma. Our objective was to define the roles of T and L-type calcium channels in regulating aldosterone secretion from human adrenals. We find that human adrenal ZG cells mainly express T-type CaV3.2/3.3 and L-type CaV1.2/1.3 calcium channels. TTA-P2, a specific inhibitor of T-type calcium channel subtypes, reduced basal aldosterone secretion from acutely prepared slices of human adrenals. Surprisingly, nifedipine, the prototypic inhibitor of L-type calcium channels, also decreased basal aldosterone secretion, suggesting that L-type calcium channels are active under basal conditions. In addition, TTA-P2 or nifedipine also inhibited aldosterone secretion stimulated by angiotensin II- or elevations in extracellular K+. Remarkably, blockade of either L- or T-type calcium channels inhibits basal and stimulated aldosterone production to a similar extent. Low concentrations of TTA-P2 and nifedipine showed additive inhibitory effect on aldosterone secretion. We conclude that T- and L-type calcium channels play equally important roles in controlling aldosterone production from human adrenals.
H Del Zotto, L Massa, R Rafaeloff, GL Pittenger, A Vinik, G Gold, A Reifel-Miller, and JJ Gagliardino
The possible relationship between changes in islet cell mass and in islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP)-cell mass induced by sucrose administration to normal hamsters was investigated. Normal hamsters were given sucrose (10% in drinking water) for 5 (S8) or 21 (S24) weeks and compared with control (C) fed hamsters. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured and quantitative immunocytochemistry of the endocrine pancreas was performed. Serum glucose levels were comparable among the groups, while insulin levels were higher in S hamsters. There was a significant increase in beta-cell mass (P<0.02) and in beta-cell 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine index (P<0.01), and a significant decrease in islet volume (P<0.01) only in S8 vs C8 hamsters. Cytokeratin (CK)-labelled cells were detected only in S8 hamsters. INGAP-positive cell mass was significantly larger only in S8 vs C8 hamsters. Endocrine INGAP-positive cells were located at the islet periphery ( approximately 96%), spread within the exocrine pancreas ( approximately 3%), and in ductal cells (<1%) in all groups. INGAP positivity and glucagon co-localization varied according to topographic location and type of treatment. In C8 hamsters, 49.1+/-6. 9% cells were INGAP- and glucagon-positive in the islets, while this percentage decreased by almost half in endocrine extra-insular and ductal cells. In S8 animals, co-expression increased in endocrine extra-insular cells to 36.3+/-9.5%, with similar figures in the islets, decreasing to 19.7+/-6.9% in ductal cells. INGAP-positive cells located at the islet periphery also co-expressed CK. In conclusion, a significant increase of INGAP-positive cell mass was only observed at 8 weeks when neogenesis was present, suggesting that this peptide might participate in the control of islet neogenesis. Thus, INGAP could be a potentially useful tool to treat conditions in which there is a decrease in beta-cell mass.
Sandra K Szlapinski, Anthony A Botros, Sarah Donegan, Renee T King, Gabrielle Retta, Brenda J Strutt, and David J Hill
Gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of dysglycemia postpartum, in part, due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. However, no histological evidence exists comparing endocrine pancreas after healthy and glucose-intolerant pregnancies. This study sought to address this knowledge gap, in addition to exploring the contribution of an inflammatory environment to changes in endocrine pancreas after parturition. We used a previously established mouse model of gestational glucose intolerance induced by dietary low protein insult from conception until weaning. Pancreas and adipose samples were collected at 7, 30 and 90 days postpartum for histomorphometric and cytokine analyses, respectively. Glucose tolerance tests were performed prior to euthanasia and blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Pregnant female mice born to dams fed a low protein diet previously shown to develop glucose intolerance at late gestation relative to controls continued to be glucose intolerant until 1 month postpartum. However, glucose tolerance normalized by 3 months postpartum. Glucose intolerance at 7 days postpartum was associated with lower beta- and alpha-cell fractional areas and higher adipose levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6. By 3 months postpartum, a compensatory increase in the number of small islets and a higher insulin to glucagon ratio likely enabled euglycemia to be attained in the previously glucose-intolerant mice. The results show that impairments in endocrine pancreas compensation in hyperglycemic pregnancy persist after parturition and contribute to prolonged glucose intolerance. These impairments may increase the susceptibility to development of future type 2 diabetes.
M Nasu, T Sugimoto, H Kaji, and K Chihara
Although there is clinical evidence showing that combined therapy with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and estrogen is additively effective in increasing the bone mass of patients with osteoporosis, the mechanism of the interaction between these hormones remains unclear. The present study was performed to determine whether estrogen would affect osteoblast proliferation and function modulated by PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells. Human PTH-(1-34) significantly inhibited [(3)H]thymidine (TdR) incorporation, which was attenuated by 24 h pretreatment with 10(-10) to 10(-7) M 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta-E(2)) in a concentration-dependent manner. PTH significantly stimulated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen synthesis and type-1 procollagen mRNA expression after pretreatment with 17 beta-E(2 )in these cells. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen, antagonized these 17 beta-E(2)-induced effects. Pretreatment with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mimicked estrogen action, and coincubation of 3 microg/ml anti-IGF-I antibody antagonized the effects of 17 beta-E(2 )as well as those of IGF-I. In the presence of 17 beta-E(2 )pretreatment, PTH strongly stimulated IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 mRNA expression in these cells, and recombinant IGFBP-5 increased type-1 procollagen mRNA expression and ALP activity. In conclusion, estrogen attenuates PTH-induced inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and PTH stimulates osteoblast function in the presence of estrogen pretreatment. IGF-I and/or IGFBP-5 seemed to be involved in the estrogen-induced modulation of PTH action on osteoblast proliferation and function.